The latest medical research on Pregnancy

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about pregnancy gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Laparotomy-assisted 2-port fetoscopic repair of spina bifida aperta: report of a single-center experience in Paris, France.

Fetal Diagnosis Therapy

Given the maternal morbidity of open fetal surgery, the development of prenatal fetoscopic repair for spina bifida aperta (SBA) is encouraged.

We hereby report the early results from our center, using a laparotomy-assisted CO2-fetoscopic approach.

This study was conducted in patients with an SBA<T1 and >S1, <26 weeks' of gestation, with Chiari II. Fetoscopic repair was performed using 2 operating trocars in the uterus exteriorized through a transverse laparotomy. Endoscopy was performed under humidified and heated CO2 insufflation. Following dissection of the lesion, a 1-layer approach was performed with a muscle/skin flap sutured over a patch of Duragen. Main outcomes were watertight repair at birth and the need for postnatal neurosurgical surgery including shunting within 6 months.

Of 87 women assessed for prenatal therapy, 7 were included. Surgery was performed at 24 (23-26) weeks' gestation. There was no fetal demise. Conversion to hysterotomy was not performed, although surgery could not be performed in one case because of fetal position. Severe preeclampsia developed postoperatively in one case. In the other 6 cases, follow-up was uneventful except for premature rupture membranes which occurred in 3/6 cases at 30, 34 and 36+5-weeks' gestation. Gestational age at delivery was 32+5 (31-36+5) weeks' gestation. Repair was watertight at birth except in two cases which required complementary postnatal surgical repair. Reverse hindbrain herniation during pregnancy was observed in 4/6 cases. In 3/6 cases, shunting was necessary within six months after birth. At 12 months, a functional gain >= 2 metameric levels, was observed in 3 cases of the 6 survivors Conclusion: Laparotomy-assisted fetoscopic repair is a reasonable option for women who choose and are eligible for antenatal surgery, both in terms of maternal and perinatal morbidity.

Risks of single fetal demise after laser for Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome.

Fetal Diagnosis Therapy

To determine if markers of donor placental insufficiency and recipient cardiac dysfunction increase the risk for single fetal demise (SFD) after laser for Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome (TTTS).

Single center retrospective review of patients who had laser for TTTS. Risk factors for donor and recipient demise within one week were compared in pregnancies with SFD and pregnancies with dual survival using Chi square or Fisher's exact test. Multivariate logistic regression was then performed.

Of 398 procedures, 305 (76.6%) had dual survival, 36 (9.0%) had donor demise, 28 (7.0%) had recipient demise and 9 (2.3%) had dual demise. The remaining 20 (5.0%) patients had complicated courses with pregnancy loss or further intervention. In the 64 pregnancies with SFD, 29 (81%) in the donor group and 20 (71%) in the recipient group occurred in the first postoperative week. For the donor demise group, estimated fetal weight (EFW) < 10%, EFW < 3%, EFW < 1%, EFW discordance > 25%, and EFW discordance > 30% did not increase the risk for donor demise except in cases that also had umbilical artery absent or reversed end diastolic flow (AREDF). Donor AREDF was the only independent risk factor for early donor demise. For the recipient demise group, recipient abnormal venous Dopplers were associated with increased risk while EFW discordance > 25% was associated with decreased risk of recipient loss.

In our cohort, donor growth restriction did not increase the risk of early donor demise after laser unless there was also donor AREDF. Donor AREDF was an independent risk factor for donor demise likely due to the severity of placental insufficiency. Abnormal recipient venous Doppler indices increased the risk of early recipient loss while a large intertwin discordance decreased the risk. This may be explained by profound overload in cases with recipient abnormal venous Doppler velocimetry and a lower risk of substantial fluid shifts from a relatively smaller donor territory when there is a large discordance.

Iron Deficiency Anemia and Associated Factors Among Adolescent Girls and Women in a Rural Area of Jatinangor, Indonesia.

International Journal of Epidemiology

Iron deficiency anemia is a common problem among adolescent girls and women, with significant consequences on personal health. One of the causes of iron deficiency anemia is inadequate nutritional intake. This study explores iron-deficiency anemia and associated factors among adolescent girls and women in a rural area of Jatinangor, Indonesia.

A cross-sectional study was conducted with 95 adolescent girls and 85 women between April and November 2018. Cluster random sampling was used to select the participants from seven villages in the Jatinangor district. After obtaining informed consent, we collected sociodemographic data, menstrual histories, and related data, including nutritional intake using 24-hour dietary recall. Anthropometrics were gathered to determine the body mass Index (BMI), and venous blood samples were analyzed for complete blood count and hemoglobin levels. Descriptive statistics followed by bivariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify anemia-associated factors.

The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia among the girls was 21.1% and 9.4% among women, with an average hemoglobin level in adolescents of 10.75 g/dL (± 0.79) and in adults 11.20 g/dL (± 0.61), whereas MCV was 74.49±8.22 fL in adolescents and 7.61±8.62 fL in adults. The majority of our samples were not stunted in growth and were also within a normal weight range. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that protein intake (OR=0.25; 95% CI 0.11-0.58) was a positively associated factor with anemia.

The prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia in this study represents a mild public health problem in the study sample. Based on the hemoglobin level, anemia, can be classified as moderate in adolescents and mild in adults. Low levels of MCH indicate iron-deficiency anemia. Sufficient protein intake did not prevent anemia due to macronutrient and micronutrient intake.

Current Status of the Workforce and Training at Fetal Therapy Centers in the North America.

Fetal Diagnosis Therapy

An anonymous electronic survey was developed to query the 34 centers in the North American Fetal Treatment Network (NAFTNet) regarding the demograp...

Effect of Surgical Findings on Prediction of Postoperative Ovarian Reserve in Patients with Ovarian Endometrioma.

International Journal of Epidemiology

Revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine (rASRM) classification for endometriosis is considered to have limited ability to predict fertility after surgery. This study evaluated the effect of surgical findings described by the rASRM classification on postoperative change in serum Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in endometriosis.

We retrospectively analyzed 112 patients with endometrioma who underwent laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy. The ovarian score was defined as the sum of the endometrioma score from the size and depth of endometrioma and the adhesion score from the extent and types of ovarian adhesion described in the rASRM classification. The ovarian score was correlated with the AMH levels before surgery (AMH0), 3 (AMH3), and 6 months (AMH6) after surgery. To design a model for predicting AMH6, using ovarian score and AMH0, we calculated the unstandardized predictive value of AMH6/AMH0 (UPV) by linear regression analysis. The predicted AMH6 (pAMH6) could be calculated by multiplying the UPV by AMH0. When AMH6 is less than 1.0 ng/mL, it was defined as a poor ovarian reserve group (PORG), and the accuracy of the predictive model was validated.

The level of AMH declined more in rASRM stage IV compared to stage III after surgery. The ovarian score had a significant variable in the linear regression analysis with the ratio of AMH6/AMH0 (p = 0.001). The UPV was correlated with ovarian score negatively. The pAMH6 correlated with AMH6 positively and with age negatively. The pAMH6 showed sensitivity 0.564, specificity 0.909, positive predictive rate 0.786, and negative predictive rate 0.800 in the prediction of PORG (p < 0.001).

The pAMH6 predicted the PORG at 6 months after surgery. Based on the results of our study, the surgical findings, including the size and depth of the endometrioma and extent and types of adhesion could be useful indicators for ovarian reserve after surgery.

Rac1 is involved in uterine myometrium contraction in the inflammation associated preterm birth.


Preterm birth (PTB) is a public health issue. The WHO has recommended the use of tocolytic treatment to inhibit preterm labour and improve pregnanc...

The role of Angiotensin II and relaxin in vascular adaptation to pregnancy.


During pregnancy, systemic and uteroplacental blood flow increase to ensure an adequate blood supply that carries oxygen and nutrients from the mot...

Emergency Contraceptive Pill Use and its Impact on Condom Utilization Among University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study.

International Journal of Epidemiology

Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) prevent unplanned pregnancy but not sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and the practice of ECP may affect condom use. This study, therefore, aimed to assess ECP use and its impact on condom utilization among female students of private universities in Nekemte town, western Ethiopia.

An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 female students in three different private universities from February 1 to 28, 2019. Study samples were selected through simple random sampling technique. Data collected from a structured self-administered questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS version 23.0. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to determine factors associated with condom utilization, and statistical significance was set at 95% confidence interval (CI) using a p-value of <0.05 as a cutoff point.

The response rate was 95.3% (381/400). Overall, 51.4% (196/381; 95% CI = 45.1%, 57.7%) had awareness of ECP. Besides, 186 (48.8%) students reported history of sexual intercourse, of which 115 (61.8%) have ever practiced ECP and 96 (51.6%) have ever used condom. However, only 11 (5.9%) have ever utilized ECP and condom concurrently. Use of ECPs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.164, 0.632; p = 0.001), belief that condom prevents STI (AOR = 3.17; 95% CI = 1.045, 8.646; p = 0.041) and thought that ECP does not prevent STI (AOR = 2.217; 95% CI = 1.172, 4.59; p = 0.032) had statistically significant association with condom utilization.

The practice of ECP was average, while dual method contraception use was low in the study area. History of ECP use and beliefs that ECP is not effective to prevent STI or condom protects against STI were factors associated with condom use.

Predictors of Hepatitis B Virus Infection Vaccine Hesitancy Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at Lubaga Hospital, Kampala, Uganda.

International Journal of Epidemiology

While hepatitis B virus infection may be seen as a global threat within the medical and scientific community, primary prevention via vaccination remains the most effective approach towards breaking the chain of transmission of HBV infection. However, vaccination uptake in Uganda has been modest despite a very endemic national figure resulting from the vertical transmission of this infection. This study assessed the predictors of HBV vaccine hesitancy among pregnant women attending Antenatal clinic in Central Uganda.

A hospital-based cross-sectional study employing a five-sectioned pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire was conducted to obtain data from 385 consenting pregnant women. Responses for the antecedent variables were transformed into weighted aggregate scores using SPSS version 26. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was employed to ascertain the predictors of HBV vaccine hesitancy with the cut-off for hypotheses set at 5% level of significance.

The majority of the respondents (59%) were between the ages of 18 and 28 years. Women with secondary educational attainment were predominant (42.3%). The respondents had mean scores of 5.97±6.61, 17.10±18.31, and 12.39±13.37, respectively, computed for knowledge of HBV infection, perception, and behavioral skills towards HBV prevention. Regarding vaccine hesitancy, three-quarters of the women (74%) hesitated to uptake HBV vaccine. While negative significant associations exist between marital status (AOR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.22-1.01), knowledge (AOR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.70-0.89), behavioral skills (AOR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.81-0.95) and vaccine hesitancy, level of education (AOR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.08-3.27) and perception (AOR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.05-1.18) on the other hand, positively predicted vaccine hesitancy.

The findings reported an extremely high degree of HBV vaccine hesitancy among the expectant mothers discovered to be linked with marital status, educational attainment, HBV-specific knowledge, perception and behavioral skills. This necessitates targeted health education for married women with lower educational attainment to improve their knowledge which will in turn shape their perception and behavioral skills towards satisfactory uptake of HBV vaccine.

Effect of Aerobic Exercises in Improving Premenstrual Symptoms Among Healthy Women: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

International Journal of Epidemiology

Premenstrual symptoms in women of reproductive age are associated with substantial distress and functional impairments. A healthy lifestyle is the first step to manage premenstrual symptoms. Recreational physical activities have been recommended as an alternative to medical management in easing premenstrual symptoms.

The objective of this systematic review is to analyze the effects of aerobic exercises in improving premenstrual symptoms among healthy women.

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published from inception to February 2022, were searched using keywords in electronic databases such as, SCOPUS, PubMed, PEDro, Cochrane and web of science. RCTs published in English, comparing the effects of aerobic exercise with other interventions or controls were included. PEDro scale and Cochrane collaboration tool for risk of bias was used to assess the methodological quality of included trials. Data from the included study and the participant's characteristics, interventions, outcome and results were extracted.

Five RCTs with 492 participants were included in this systematic review. Methodological quality assessed by PEDro (4.8/10) and Cochrane collaboration tool for risk of bias were moderate. Allocation concealment, blinding of participants and outcome assessors were the most common bias in all included studies. Walking, swimming and running were the common aerobic exercises performed in the RCTs. Aerobic exercise is effective in improving physical physiological symptoms among women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

Aerobic exercises are effective in improving premenstrual symptoms. This review provides moderate evidence for improving hematological parameters during PMS. Further RCTs with long term follow up and quality of life would consolidate our findings.

Endometrial Cryoablation for the Treatment of Heavy Menstrual Bleeding: 36-Month Outcomes from the CLARITY Study.

International Journal of Epidemiology

To examine long-term outcomes from the pivotal study that evaluated the safety and effectiveness of the Cerene® Cryotherapy Device (Channel Medsystems, Berkeley, CA) in premenopausal women with heavy menstrual bleeding due to benign causes who have completed childbearing.

The prospective, multicenter, single-arm, open-label study had eight sites in the USA, one in Mexico, and two in Canada. Inclusion criteria included uterine sound ≤10 cm, endometrial cavity length 2.5 to 6.5 cm, age 25 to 50 years, a pictorial blood loss assessment chart score of ≥150, no submucosal myomata and/or uterine obstruction, distortion, or abnormality. A total of 242 subjects underwent a 2.5-minute cryoablation. Long-term follow-up visits were conducted at Month 24 and Month 36. Data collected included gynecological adverse events, description of last menstrual period, contraception status, self-report of pregnancy, medical or surgical interventions to treat abnormal uterine bleeding, satisfaction, recommendation, and quality of life (QoL). QoL outcomes were measured with the Menorrhagia Impact Questionnaire (MIQ) and the Premenstrual Symptoms Impact Survey (PMSIS™).

201 subjects completed their Month 36 final study visit. Subject outcomes were comparable to those at Month 12. Eighty-nine percent of subjects reported amenorrhea, a lighter-than-normal, or normal period, 91% of subjects had no or slight limitations in MIQ measured activities, and 85% reported premenstrual symptoms at a low frequency. Eighty-five percent of the subjects were satisfied or very satisfied. The cumulative incidence of hysterectomy was 5% and reintervention was 8.7%. Forty-nine gynecologic adverse events (AE) were reported; one non-serious AE, postcoital bleeding, was reported as related to the procedure. No serious device-related or procedure-related AEs were reported.

Study data demonstrate that the positive effects of Cerene Cryotherapy Device treatment are sustained through Month 36 and that the risks associated with the device and procedure are low (; NCT02842736).

Spotlight on the Gut Microbiome in Menopause: Current Insights.

International Journal of Epidemiology

The gut microbiome is an important contributor to human health, shaped by many endogenous and exogenous factors. The gut microbiome displays sexual...