The latest medical research on Thyroid Cancer

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RET Proto-Oncogene Mutational Analysis in 45 Iranian Patients Affected with Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: Report of a New Variant.

Thyroid Cancer

The aim of this study was to identify germline mutation of the RET (rearranged during transfection) gene in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and their first-degree relatives to find presymptomatic carriers for possible prophylactic thyroidectomy. Methods/Patients. We examined all six hot spot exons (exons 10, 11, 13, and 14-16) of the RET gene by PCR and bidirectional Sanger sequencing in 45 Iranian patients with MTC (either sporadic or familial form) from 7 unrelated kindred and 38 apparently sporadic cases. First-degree relatives of RET positive cases were also genotyped for index mutation. Moreover, presymptomatic carriers were referred to the endocrinologist for further clinical management and prophylactic thyroidectomy if needed.

Overall, the genetic status of all of the participants was determined by RET mutation screening, including 61 affected individuals, 22 presymptomatic carriers, and 29 genetically healthy subjects. In 37.5% (17 of 45) of the MTC referral index patients, 8 distinct RET germline mutations were found, including p.C634R (35.3%), p.M918T (17.6%), p.C634Y (11.8%), p.C634F (5.9%), p.C611Y (5.9%), p.C618R (5.9%), p.C630R (5.9%), p.L790F (5.9%), and one uncertain variant p.V648I (5.9%). Also, we found a novel variant p.H648R in one of our apparently sporadic patients.

RET mutation detection is a promising/golden screening test and provides an accurate presymptomatic diagnostic test for at-risk carriers (the siblings and offspring of the patients) to consider prophylactic thyroidectomy. Thus, according to the ATA recommendations, the screening of the RET proto-oncogene is indicated for patients with MTC.

Immunohistochemical Analysis of Toll-Like Receptors, MyD88, and TRIF in Human Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma.

Thyroid Cancer

We hypothesized that innate immune response pathways might be involved in thyroid carcinogenesis. To investigate this hypothesis, we aimed at analyzing the expression of several receptors and molecules in the innate immune system in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) tissues.

Of the surgically resected specimens, 11 ATC tissues, 25 PTC tissues, and 8 nodular hyperplasia (NH) tissues were selected and examined for the expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7, TLR9, the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), and toll-interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing INF-β (TRIF) by immunohistochemistry (IHC).

Several TLRs were expressed in each tissue. TLR3 was strongly expressed in all tissues. In contrast, TLR4 was not detected in any tissues. While TLR5 was moderately expressed in NH but significantly reduced in PTC and ATC, TLR9 was absent in NH tissue but moderately expressed in both PTC and ATC. On MyD88 expression, no significant difference was found between PTC and ATC. TRIF was significantly upregulated in PTC and ATC compared to NH. Surprisingly, PTC and ATC tissues exhibited similar expression patterns of TLRs, MyD88, and TRIF.

These data suggest the involvement of the innate immune system in both PTC and ATC. Specifically, TLR3-mediated TRIF activation was confirmed in PTC and ATC. This provides new insight into thyroid carcinogenesis.

Predictors of Improvement in Quality of Life When Treating Hypothyroidism.

Thyroid Cancer

Primary hypothyroidism is characterized by reduced quality of life (QoL). Although thyrotropin (TSH) is utilized as the primary indicator of thyroid disease and treatment adequacy, no simple correlation between QoL and TSH has been shown. This study aimed to investigate changes in clinically relevant predictors during initiation of levothyroxine (L-T4) therapy and their ability to predict improvement in QoL.

Quality of life was measured in patients with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism, during the initial 12 months of L-T4 therapy, by the thyroid-related patient-reported outcome questionnaire, ThyPRO-39. The main outcome measures were the Composite QoL scale and the Tiredness and Emotional Susceptibility subscales (0-100, higher scores worse). Clinical variables (resting energy expenditure (REE), body composition, thyroid function, L-T4 dose, and cognitive function tests) were evaluated as predictors of improvement in QoL by univariate and multiple regression analysis.

Thirty-seven hypothyroid patients with a baseline median TSH of 30 mU/l and a median QoL score of 29 were included. After twelve months of L-T4 treatment, the ThyPRO-39 QoL score had significantly improved to a median score of 14, while REE per kg fat-free mass (FFM) increased significantly from a mean of 26.5 to 28.7 kcal/day/kg (p < 0.001). Change in ThyPRO-39 was not associated with a change in REE/FFM (unstandardized coefficient (USC): 0.09 with confidence interval (CI): -1.93 to 2.11, p=0.93) but was positively predicted by baseline body mass index (BMI) (USC: 1.54 with CI: 0.59 to 2.49, (p=0.002), without association with weight loss (USC: 0.33 with CI: -1.21 to 1.27, p=0.96).

Improvement in QoL as measured by ThyPRO-39 after initiation of L-T4 therapy for hypothyroidism was not associated with changes in REE. High baseline BMI, but not weight loss during therapy, was associated with improvement in QoL. This trail is registered with www.Clinicaltrials.gov (registration no. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02891668).

Prevalence of Hypothyroidism in Pregnant Women in India: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

Thyroid Cancer

This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the prevalence of hypothyroidism among pregnant women in India.

We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Shodhganga (Indian thesis repository) for observational studies, providing prevalence of hypothyroidism among pregnant women in India. Systematic study selection and data extraction procedures were followed. Quality assessment of each study was done using JBI critical appraisal checklist. The random effects model was used for pooling the effect sizes. Publication bias was assessed using the funnel plot and rank correlation test. I2 statistics was used to measure heterogeneity across the studies. Heterogeneity in the pooled estimates was further explored with subgroup analyses and meta-regression analysis.

Sixty-one studies were found eligible and included in this review. The pooled estimate of the prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women was 11.07% (95% CI: 8.79-13.84, I2 = 99%). Pooled prevalence estimates of subclinical and overt hypothyroidism are 9.51% (95% CI: 7.48-12.04, I2 = 98%) and 2.74% (95% CI: 2.08-3.58, I2 = 94%).

We documented 11.07% pooled prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women in India.

Retracted: Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis: Clinical Challenges.

Thyroid Cancer

[This retracts the article DOI: 10.1155/2014/649502.].