The latest medical research on Thyroid Cancer

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about thyroid cancer gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Thyroidectomy for Euthyroid Patients with Hashimoto Disease and Persistent Symptoms: An Observational, Postrandomization Study.

Thyroid Cancer

Despite adequate hormone substitution in Hashimoto disease, some patients may have persistent symptoms with a possible autoimmune pathophysiology. A recent randomized trial (RCT) using patient-reported outcome measures as the primary endpoint showed benefit in total thyroidectomy, but at a cost of high complication rates.

To verify results from the RCT in an observational study including a wider range of patients and explore means of predicting who may benefit from such surgery.

A total of 154 patients with Hashimoto disease, euthyroid with or without thyroid hormone substitution, and persistent Hashimoto-related symptoms were subjected to total thyroidectomy and followed for 18 months after surgery. The primary outcome was the General Health (GH) dimensional score in the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36).

Eighteen months after surgery, a clinically significant improvement in GH was seen, similar to the findings in the previous RCT. Anti-TPO antibody titers were markedly reduced after surgery, but preoperative titers or other preoperative parameters could not predict the outcome of surgery. Three (1.9%) of 154 patients experienced permanent unilateral recurrent nerve palsy and six (3.9%) experienced hypoparathyroidism after surgery.

Thyroidectomy had a beneficial symptom-reducing effect in euthyroid patients with Hashimoto disease and persistent symptoms. The pathophysiology of residual symptoms remains unclear, and surgical complication rates are high. If thyroidectomy is considered as a treatment option, it should be performed in dedicated centers with experienced endocrine surgeons and as part of further studies on persistent symptoms. This trial is registered with NCT-02319538.

Endoscopic Thyroidectomy for Large-Sized Goiters: Merits of the Axillo-Breast Approach with Gas Insufflation.

Thyroid Cancer

Several minimal access approaches to the thyroid gland have been widely applied; nevertheless, such approaches are still challenging when dealing with large-sized thyroid nodules or goiters. We hereby evaluated the outcomes and highlighted the merits of endoscopic axillo-breast hemithyroidectomy (EABH) for large-sized unilateral goiters.

Patients underwent EABH for unilateral large thyroid nodules ≥6 cm in its greatest dimension or unilateral large goiter (≥60 ml sonographic volume) whatever the size of its contained nodules were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Their demographic data, clinicopathological profiles, and surgical and esthetic outcomes are reported and analyzed.

Over a 2-year period, 33 patients matched the selection criteria. Their mean age was 34.75 ± 11.39 years. There were 30 women and 3 men. The majority of nodules were radiologically TIRADS3 and cytologically Bethesda 3. The mean sonographic dominant nodule greatest dimension was 5.29 ± 1.48 cm (range: 3-9.5 cm). The mean sonographic volume of the pathological lobe was 101.86 ± 54.45 ml (range: 60.11-236.88 ml). All cases were completed endoscopically with no conversion to open. The mean operative time was 110.76 ± 18.75 minutes. No significant postoperative complications were reported except for one case with temporary vocal cord paresis. Most (87.9%) of the patients were extremely satisfied with the procedure.

EABH with our suggested key steps could be considered an effective valid approach for unilateral large goiters in trained hands and in patients desirous for cosmesis.

Occult Central Lymph Node Metastasis in cN0 Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Patients Undergoing TOETVA Procedure.

Thyroid Cancer

In this study, we evaluate the rate of CLNM and related factors in patients with cN0 PTC undergoing transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA), a feasible and safe procedure that is widely approved for early stage PTC patients.

A cross-sectional study was performed on 346 patients who underwent TOETVA due to thyroid cancer in the Department of Oncology and Palliative Care, Hanoi Medical University Hospital, from January 2020 to December 2021. The clinical, surgical, and pathological characteristics were recorded.

The mean age was 36.1 ± 9.1 (13-67) years. Females accounted for 96%. Total thyroidectomy was applied in 55 cases (15.9%), and conservative thyroidectomy accounted for 291 (84.4%). The median number of harvested lymph nodes in ipsilateral and bilateral CND groups is 5 (IQR: 3-7) and 7 (IQR: 3-10). The median number of metastasized lymph nodes in these two groups is 2 (IQR: 1-3) and 3 (IQR: 2-6), respectively. The rate of CLNM was 39.9%. Thyroiditis increased the number of harvested lymph nodes: 8.3 ± 0.7 (1-24) nodes, p = 0.002. Tumor size on ultrasound, young age (<29 years old), and stage of tumor increased the possibility of CLNM, p < 0.05. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression revealed that young age (<29 years old) and gross tumor invasion were independent risk factors of high number of CLNM with p < 0.05.

In summary, CLNM rate in patients with cN0 PTC accounted for 39.9%. With the facilities of pCND by TOETVA, a procedure that is widely approved for early PTC and has excellent cosmetics and oncological results, pCND should be considered in patients with risk factors like young age or large tumor. High volume of CLNM is associated with young age and gross tumor extension, and total thyroidectomy should be indicated in these patient groups.

Iodine Deficiency in Patients with Hypothyroidism: A Pilot Study.

Thyroid Cancer

Worldwide, 21 countries have insufficient iodine in their diets. Persistent iodine deficiency may result in hypothyroidism. The aim of this study is to determine whether iodine measurements can be used to determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency in patients with (subclinical) hypothyroidism compared to a control group.

A prospective cohort pilot study was performed at the Internal Medicine Outpatient Clinic of Isala, a large teaching hospital in Zwolle, the Netherlands. Patients. This study consisted of two groups of 24 adult patients each: a group of consecutive patients presenting with overt or subclinical hypothyroidism and a control group of euthyroid patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Measurements. All patients collected 24-hour urine. Iodine status was determined using urinary iodine concentration (UIC), urinary iodine excretion (UIE), and iodine creatinine ratio (I : Cr). Iodine deficiency was defined as an iodine concentration <100 µg/L for UIC, iodine level <125 µg for UIE, and <0.13 µmol/mmol for I : Cr.

According to UIE and UIC measurements, 54.2% of hypothyroid patients were iodine-deficient compared to 41.7-45.8% in the control group. According to the I : Cr measurement 91.7% of hypothyroid patients were iodine-deficient compared to 87.5% in the control group. No significant difference was seen between the two groups. No correlation was found between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level and iodine deficiency.

Iodine deficiency is prevalent in both hypothyroid patients and euthyroid patients. Because there is no significant difference between the groups, a single 24-hour urine or spot urine sample to determine UIC, UIE, and I : Cr, seems not suitable to determine iodine status in an individual participant.

Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: Prevalence and Associated Factors.

Thyroid Cancer

Renal function and thyroid metabolism are tightly related. However, evidence about subclinical hypothyroidism prevalence in patients with chronic kidney disease and its related factors is scarce.

Our aim is to analyze subclinical hypothyroidism prevalence and its related factors in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. Materials and methods. Nondialysis-dependent patients with chronic kidney disease at stages 3 to 5 were included. Other inclusion criteria were age above 18 years and clinical stability. Patients with diagnosed thyroid illnesses were excluded. Subclinical hypothyroidism was defined as thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) > 5.3 mU/L, with free thyroxine 4 (FT4) between 0.54 and 1.24 ng/dl. Filiation data, comorbidities, and routine blood and urine test results were registered.

A total of 299 patients were included. Of them, 184 (61.5%) were men. The mean age was 71 ± 13 years old. The mean glomerular filtration rate (CKD-EPI) was 22 ± 9 ml/min/1.73 m2. According to chronic kidney disease stages, global distribution of patients was as follows: Stage 3, 67 patients (22.4%); Stage 4, 155 patients (51.8%); and Stage 5, 77 patients (25.8%). We found subclinical hypothyroidism in 54 (18.1%) patients. According to chronic kidney disease stages, distribution of affected patients was as follows: Stage 3, 9 patients (13%); Stage 4, 25 patients (16.1%); and Stage 5, 20 patients (26%). Differences among stages were statistically significant. By univariate analysis, factors related with subclinical hypothyroidism were as follows: age RR 1.048 (95% CI 1.019-1.078; p=0.001), hypertension RR 2.705 (95% CI 1.026-7.130; p=0.04), glomerular filtration rate RR 0.962 (95% CI 0.929-0.996; p=0.03), and proteinuria higher than 1 gram/day RR 2.387 (95% CI 1.303-4.374; p=0.005). By multivariate analysis adjusted by age, hypertension, glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease history, only age RR 1.016 (95% CI 1.009-1.028; p=0.04) and glomerular filtration rate RR 0.963 (95% CI 0.930-0.997; p=0.03) preserved their independent association with subclinical hypothyroidism.

Subclinical hypothyroidism prevalence in patients with chronic kidney disease is high and increases with renal disease severity. Factors independently related to subclinical hypothyroidism are age and glomerular filtration rate.

Thyroid Signaling Biomarkers in Female Symptomatic Hypothyroid Patients on Liothyronine versus Levothyroxine Monotherapy: A Randomized Crossover Trial.

Thyroid Cancer

Levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) are believed to reflect degree of disease in patients with hypothyroidism, and normalization of levels is the treatment goal. However, despite adequate levels of TSH after starting levothyroxine (LT4) therapy, 5-10% of hypothyroid patients complain of persisting symptoms with a significant negative impact on quality of life. This indicates that TSH is not an optimal indicator of intracellular thyroid hormone effects in all patients. Our aim was to investigate different effects of LT3 and LT4 monotherapy on other biomarkers of the thyroid signaling pathway, in addition to adverse effects, in patients with residual hypothyroid symptoms.

Fifty-nine female hypothyroid patients, with residual symptoms on LT4 monotherapy or LT4/liothyronine (LT3) combination therapy, were randomly assigned in a non-blinded crossover study and received LT4 or LT3 monotherapy for 12 weeks each. Measurements, including serum analysis of a number of biochemical and hormonal parameters, were obtained at the baseline visit and after both treatment periods.

Free thyroxine (FT4) was higher in the LT4 group, while free triiodothyronine (FT3) was higher in the LT3 group. The levels of reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) decreased after LT3 treatment compared with LT4 treatment. Both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol levels were reduced, while sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) increased after LT3 treatment compared with LT4 treatment. The median TSH levels for both treatment groups were within the reference range, however, lower in the LT4 group than in the LT3 group. We did not find any differences in pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT pro-BNP), handgrip strength, bone turnover markers, or adverse events between the two treatment groups.

We have demonstrated that FT4, FT3, rT3, cholesterol, and SHBG show significantly different values on LT4 treatment compared with LT3 treatment in women with hypothyroidism and residual symptoms despite normal TSH levels. No differences in general or bone-specific adverse effects were demonstrated. This trial is registered with NCT03627611 in May 2018.

Short-Term Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with Subclinical Hypothyroidism: A Comparative Approach of Iranian and American Guidelines.

Thyroid Cancer

Subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy can be associated with numerous adverse outcomes. The purpose of this study was to compare short-term adverse pregnancy outcomes in treated versus nontreated patients who fall within the numerical range of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) between the Iranian and American reference ranges.

Eighty pregnant women with a known level of antithyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and TSH levels of 2.5-3.9 mIu/L in the first trimester and 3-4.1 mIu/L in the second and third trimesters were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned into two groups including 41 patients in the intervention group and 39 in the control group. The intervention group was treated with levothyroxine at least 50 μg/day and the control group received no treatment. The data were analyzed by SPSS software version 23.

The only significant findings were a correlation between pregnancy loss frequency (p - 0.011) and/or increased TSH level in the follow-up period (p = 0.008) with anti-TPO antibody positivity. Forty-four percent of mothers with positive anti-TPO Ab needed treatment initiation with levothyroxine, based on Iranian guidelines, due to increased TSH level during the follow-up period.

Untreated pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism, who were placed in the intermediate range of TSH, recommended by Iranian and American guidelines, did not show any significant difference in short-term adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to the treated patients. Positive anti-TPO Ab may play a role in the development of short-term complications in mothers with subclinical hypothyroidism or it may increase the likelihood of an increase in TSH level during pregnancy.

Clinicopathological Profile of Thyroid Carcinoma in Young Patients: An Indonesian Single-Center Study.

Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid cancer is the third most common cancer that occurs in children and adolescents. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid malignancy. Although the mortality rate of thyroid malignancy in children is usually low, the disease recurrence is higher in children with more severe clinical presentation than in adults. This study aimed to determine the demographic and clinicopathological characteristics and outcome of pediatric and adolescent patients with thyroid malignancy in Indonesia.

The retrospective study included all patients diagnosed with thyroid carcinoma aged <20 years, from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2019. Twenty-nine subjects fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. We retrieved baseline characteristics, pathology features, TSH and fT4 status, radioactive iodine therapy data, and patients' outcomes. Then, data were analyzed using the chi-square or Fisher's exact method.

We identified 29 eligible subjects, including 3 boys and 26 girls. The most common type of thyroid carcinoma was PTC (96.5%), and follicular type (31%) was the predominant variant of PTC. Lymph node involvement occurred in 24% of patients, while distant metastasis occurred in 17.2% of patients with PTC. Twenty-four (82.7%) patients had stage 1 disease. Disease recurrence was recorded in 31% of patients during the study period with a median follow-up time of 24 months.

PTC is the most frequent type of thyroid carcinoma among children and adolescents. This malignancy has a low mortality rate, but the recurrence rate remains high among younger patients than adults even during a short-term follow-up analysis. Distant metastasis and lymph node involvement are commonly found in this age group.

RET Proto-Oncogene Mutational Analysis in 45 Iranian Patients Affected with Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: Report of a New Variant.

Thyroid Cancer

The aim of this study was to identify germline mutation of the RET (rearranged during transfection) gene in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and their first-degree relatives to find presymptomatic carriers for possible prophylactic thyroidectomy. Methods/Patients. We examined all six hot spot exons (exons 10, 11, 13, and 14-16) of the RET gene by PCR and bidirectional Sanger sequencing in 45 Iranian patients with MTC (either sporadic or familial form) from 7 unrelated kindred and 38 apparently sporadic cases. First-degree relatives of RET positive cases were also genotyped for index mutation. Moreover, presymptomatic carriers were referred to the endocrinologist for further clinical management and prophylactic thyroidectomy if needed.

Overall, the genetic status of all of the participants was determined by RET mutation screening, including 61 affected individuals, 22 presymptomatic carriers, and 29 genetically healthy subjects. In 37.5% (17 of 45) of the MTC referral index patients, 8 distinct RET germline mutations were found, including p.C634R (35.3%), p.M918T (17.6%), p.C634Y (11.8%), p.C634F (5.9%), p.C611Y (5.9%), p.C618R (5.9%), p.C630R (5.9%), p.L790F (5.9%), and one uncertain variant p.V648I (5.9%). Also, we found a novel variant p.H648R in one of our apparently sporadic patients.

RET mutation detection is a promising/golden screening test and provides an accurate presymptomatic diagnostic test for at-risk carriers (the siblings and offspring of the patients) to consider prophylactic thyroidectomy. Thus, according to the ATA recommendations, the screening of the RET proto-oncogene is indicated for patients with MTC.

Immunohistochemical Analysis of Toll-Like Receptors, MyD88, and TRIF in Human Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma.

Thyroid Cancer

We hypothesized that innate immune response pathways might be involved in thyroid carcinogenesis. To investigate this hypothesis, we aimed at analyzing the expression of several receptors and molecules in the innate immune system in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) tissues.

Of the surgically resected specimens, 11 ATC tissues, 25 PTC tissues, and 8 nodular hyperplasia (NH) tissues were selected and examined for the expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7, TLR9, the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), and toll-interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing INF-β (TRIF) by immunohistochemistry (IHC).

Several TLRs were expressed in each tissue. TLR3 was strongly expressed in all tissues. In contrast, TLR4 was not detected in any tissues. While TLR5 was moderately expressed in NH but significantly reduced in PTC and ATC, TLR9 was absent in NH tissue but moderately expressed in both PTC and ATC. On MyD88 expression, no significant difference was found between PTC and ATC. TRIF was significantly upregulated in PTC and ATC compared to NH. Surprisingly, PTC and ATC tissues exhibited similar expression patterns of TLRs, MyD88, and TRIF.

These data suggest the involvement of the innate immune system in both PTC and ATC. Specifically, TLR3-mediated TRIF activation was confirmed in PTC and ATC. This provides new insight into thyroid carcinogenesis.

Predictors of Improvement in Quality of Life When Treating Hypothyroidism.

Thyroid Cancer

Primary hypothyroidism is characterized by reduced quality of life (QoL). Although thyrotropin (TSH) is utilized as the primary indicator of thyroid disease and treatment adequacy, no simple correlation between QoL and TSH has been shown. This study aimed to investigate changes in clinically relevant predictors during initiation of levothyroxine (L-T4) therapy and their ability to predict improvement in QoL.

Quality of life was measured in patients with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism, during the initial 12 months of L-T4 therapy, by the thyroid-related patient-reported outcome questionnaire, ThyPRO-39. The main outcome measures were the Composite QoL scale and the Tiredness and Emotional Susceptibility subscales (0-100, higher scores worse). Clinical variables (resting energy expenditure (REE), body composition, thyroid function, L-T4 dose, and cognitive function tests) were evaluated as predictors of improvement in QoL by univariate and multiple regression analysis.

Thirty-seven hypothyroid patients with a baseline median TSH of 30 mU/l and a median QoL score of 29 were included. After twelve months of L-T4 treatment, the ThyPRO-39 QoL score had significantly improved to a median score of 14, while REE per kg fat-free mass (FFM) increased significantly from a mean of 26.5 to 28.7 kcal/day/kg (p < 0.001). Change in ThyPRO-39 was not associated with a change in REE/FFM (unstandardized coefficient (USC): 0.09 with confidence interval (CI): -1.93 to 2.11, p=0.93) but was positively predicted by baseline body mass index (BMI) (USC: 1.54 with CI: 0.59 to 2.49, (p=0.002), without association with weight loss (USC: 0.33 with CI: -1.21 to 1.27, p=0.96).

Improvement in QoL as measured by ThyPRO-39 after initiation of L-T4 therapy for hypothyroidism was not associated with changes in REE. High baseline BMI, but not weight loss during therapy, was associated with improvement in QoL. This trail is registered with (registration no.