The latest medical research on Thyroid Cancer

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Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: Prevalence and Associated Factors.

Thyroid Cancer

Renal function and thyroid metabolism are tightly related. However, evidence about subclinical hypothyroidism prevalence in patients with chronic kidney disease and its related factors is scarce.

Our aim is to analyze subclinical hypothyroidism prevalence and its related factors in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. Materials and methods. Nondialysis-dependent patients with chronic kidney disease at stages 3 to 5 were included. Other inclusion criteria were age above 18 years and clinical stability. Patients with diagnosed thyroid illnesses were excluded. Subclinical hypothyroidism was defined as thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) > 5.3 mU/L, with free thyroxine 4 (FT4) between 0.54 and 1.24 ng/dl. Filiation data, comorbidities, and routine blood and urine test results were registered.

A total of 299 patients were included. Of them, 184 (61.5%) were men. The mean age was 71 ± 13 years old. The mean glomerular filtration rate (CKD-EPI) was 22 ± 9 ml/min/1.73 m2. According to chronic kidney disease stages, global distribution of patients was as follows: Stage 3, 67 patients (22.4%); Stage 4, 155 patients (51.8%); and Stage 5, 77 patients (25.8%). We found subclinical hypothyroidism in 54 (18.1%) patients. According to chronic kidney disease stages, distribution of affected patients was as follows: Stage 3, 9 patients (13%); Stage 4, 25 patients (16.1%); and Stage 5, 20 patients (26%). Differences among stages were statistically significant. By univariate analysis, factors related with subclinical hypothyroidism were as follows: age RR 1.048 (95% CI 1.019-1.078; p=0.001), hypertension RR 2.705 (95% CI 1.026-7.130; p=0.04), glomerular filtration rate RR 0.962 (95% CI 0.929-0.996; p=0.03), and proteinuria higher than 1 gram/day RR 2.387 (95% CI 1.303-4.374; p=0.005). By multivariate analysis adjusted by age, hypertension, glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease history, only age RR 1.016 (95% CI 1.009-1.028; p=0.04) and glomerular filtration rate RR 0.963 (95% CI 0.930-0.997; p=0.03) preserved their independent association with subclinical hypothyroidism.

Subclinical hypothyroidism prevalence in patients with chronic kidney disease is high and increases with renal disease severity. Factors independently related to subclinical hypothyroidism are age and glomerular filtration rate.

Thyroid Signaling Biomarkers in Female Symptomatic Hypothyroid Patients on Liothyronine versus Levothyroxine Monotherapy: A Randomized Crossover Trial.

Thyroid Cancer

Levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) are believed to reflect degree of disease in patients with hypothyroidism, and normalization of levels is the treatment goal. However, despite adequate levels of TSH after starting levothyroxine (LT4) therapy, 5-10% of hypothyroid patients complain of persisting symptoms with a significant negative impact on quality of life. This indicates that TSH is not an optimal indicator of intracellular thyroid hormone effects in all patients. Our aim was to investigate different effects of LT3 and LT4 monotherapy on other biomarkers of the thyroid signaling pathway, in addition to adverse effects, in patients with residual hypothyroid symptoms.

Fifty-nine female hypothyroid patients, with residual symptoms on LT4 monotherapy or LT4/liothyronine (LT3) combination therapy, were randomly assigned in a non-blinded crossover study and received LT4 or LT3 monotherapy for 12 weeks each. Measurements, including serum analysis of a number of biochemical and hormonal parameters, were obtained at the baseline visit and after both treatment periods.

Free thyroxine (FT4) was higher in the LT4 group, while free triiodothyronine (FT3) was higher in the LT3 group. The levels of reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) decreased after LT3 treatment compared with LT4 treatment. Both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol levels were reduced, while sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) increased after LT3 treatment compared with LT4 treatment. The median TSH levels for both treatment groups were within the reference range, however, lower in the LT4 group than in the LT3 group. We did not find any differences in pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT pro-BNP), handgrip strength, bone turnover markers, or adverse events between the two treatment groups.

We have demonstrated that FT4, FT3, rT3, cholesterol, and SHBG show significantly different values on LT4 treatment compared with LT3 treatment in women with hypothyroidism and residual symptoms despite normal TSH levels. No differences in general or bone-specific adverse effects were demonstrated. This trial is registered with NCT03627611 in May 2018.

Short-Term Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with Subclinical Hypothyroidism: A Comparative Approach of Iranian and American Guidelines.

Thyroid Cancer

Subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy can be associated with numerous adverse outcomes. The purpose of this study was to compare short-term adverse pregnancy outcomes in treated versus nontreated patients who fall within the numerical range of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) between the Iranian and American reference ranges.

Eighty pregnant women with a known level of antithyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and TSH levels of 2.5-3.9 mIu/L in the first trimester and 3-4.1 mIu/L in the second and third trimesters were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned into two groups including 41 patients in the intervention group and 39 in the control group. The intervention group was treated with levothyroxine at least 50 μg/day and the control group received no treatment. The data were analyzed by SPSS software version 23.

The only significant findings were a correlation between pregnancy loss frequency (p - 0.011) and/or increased TSH level in the follow-up period (p = 0.008) with anti-TPO antibody positivity. Forty-four percent of mothers with positive anti-TPO Ab needed treatment initiation with levothyroxine, based on Iranian guidelines, due to increased TSH level during the follow-up period.

Untreated pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism, who were placed in the intermediate range of TSH, recommended by Iranian and American guidelines, did not show any significant difference in short-term adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to the treated patients. Positive anti-TPO Ab may play a role in the development of short-term complications in mothers with subclinical hypothyroidism or it may increase the likelihood of an increase in TSH level during pregnancy.

Clinicopathological Profile of Thyroid Carcinoma in Young Patients: An Indonesian Single-Center Study.

Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid cancer is the third most common cancer that occurs in children and adolescents. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid malignancy. Although the mortality rate of thyroid malignancy in children is usually low, the disease recurrence is higher in children with more severe clinical presentation than in adults. This study aimed to determine the demographic and clinicopathological characteristics and outcome of pediatric and adolescent patients with thyroid malignancy in Indonesia.

The retrospective study included all patients diagnosed with thyroid carcinoma aged <20 years, from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2019. Twenty-nine subjects fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. We retrieved baseline characteristics, pathology features, TSH and fT4 status, radioactive iodine therapy data, and patients' outcomes. Then, data were analyzed using the chi-square or Fisher's exact method.

We identified 29 eligible subjects, including 3 boys and 26 girls. The most common type of thyroid carcinoma was PTC (96.5%), and follicular type (31%) was the predominant variant of PTC. Lymph node involvement occurred in 24% of patients, while distant metastasis occurred in 17.2% of patients with PTC. Twenty-four (82.7%) patients had stage 1 disease. Disease recurrence was recorded in 31% of patients during the study period with a median follow-up time of 24 months.

PTC is the most frequent type of thyroid carcinoma among children and adolescents. This malignancy has a low mortality rate, but the recurrence rate remains high among younger patients than adults even during a short-term follow-up analysis. Distant metastasis and lymph node involvement are commonly found in this age group.

RET Proto-Oncogene Mutational Analysis in 45 Iranian Patients Affected with Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: Report of a New Variant.

Thyroid Cancer

The aim of this study was to identify germline mutation of the RET (rearranged during transfection) gene in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and their first-degree relatives to find presymptomatic carriers for possible prophylactic thyroidectomy. Methods/Patients. We examined all six hot spot exons (exons 10, 11, 13, and 14-16) of the RET gene by PCR and bidirectional Sanger sequencing in 45 Iranian patients with MTC (either sporadic or familial form) from 7 unrelated kindred and 38 apparently sporadic cases. First-degree relatives of RET positive cases were also genotyped for index mutation. Moreover, presymptomatic carriers were referred to the endocrinologist for further clinical management and prophylactic thyroidectomy if needed.

Overall, the genetic status of all of the participants was determined by RET mutation screening, including 61 affected individuals, 22 presymptomatic carriers, and 29 genetically healthy subjects. In 37.5% (17 of 45) of the MTC referral index patients, 8 distinct RET germline mutations were found, including p.C634R (35.3%), p.M918T (17.6%), p.C634Y (11.8%), p.C634F (5.9%), p.C611Y (5.9%), p.C618R (5.9%), p.C630R (5.9%), p.L790F (5.9%), and one uncertain variant p.V648I (5.9%). Also, we found a novel variant p.H648R in one of our apparently sporadic patients.

RET mutation detection is a promising/golden screening test and provides an accurate presymptomatic diagnostic test for at-risk carriers (the siblings and offspring of the patients) to consider prophylactic thyroidectomy. Thus, according to the ATA recommendations, the screening of the RET proto-oncogene is indicated for patients with MTC.

Immunohistochemical Analysis of Toll-Like Receptors, MyD88, and TRIF in Human Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma.

Thyroid Cancer

We hypothesized that innate immune response pathways might be involved in thyroid carcinogenesis. To investigate this hypothesis, we aimed at analyzing the expression of several receptors and molecules in the innate immune system in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) tissues.

Of the surgically resected specimens, 11 ATC tissues, 25 PTC tissues, and 8 nodular hyperplasia (NH) tissues were selected and examined for the expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7, TLR9, the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), and toll-interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing INF-β (TRIF) by immunohistochemistry (IHC).

Several TLRs were expressed in each tissue. TLR3 was strongly expressed in all tissues. In contrast, TLR4 was not detected in any tissues. While TLR5 was moderately expressed in NH but significantly reduced in PTC and ATC, TLR9 was absent in NH tissue but moderately expressed in both PTC and ATC. On MyD88 expression, no significant difference was found between PTC and ATC. TRIF was significantly upregulated in PTC and ATC compared to NH. Surprisingly, PTC and ATC tissues exhibited similar expression patterns of TLRs, MyD88, and TRIF.

These data suggest the involvement of the innate immune system in both PTC and ATC. Specifically, TLR3-mediated TRIF activation was confirmed in PTC and ATC. This provides new insight into thyroid carcinogenesis.

Predictors of Improvement in Quality of Life When Treating Hypothyroidism.

Thyroid Cancer

Primary hypothyroidism is characterized by reduced quality of life (QoL). Although thyrotropin (TSH) is utilized as the primary indicator of thyroid disease and treatment adequacy, no simple correlation between QoL and TSH has been shown. This study aimed to investigate changes in clinically relevant predictors during initiation of levothyroxine (L-T4) therapy and their ability to predict improvement in QoL.

Quality of life was measured in patients with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism, during the initial 12 months of L-T4 therapy, by the thyroid-related patient-reported outcome questionnaire, ThyPRO-39. The main outcome measures were the Composite QoL scale and the Tiredness and Emotional Susceptibility subscales (0-100, higher scores worse). Clinical variables (resting energy expenditure (REE), body composition, thyroid function, L-T4 dose, and cognitive function tests) were evaluated as predictors of improvement in QoL by univariate and multiple regression analysis.

Thirty-seven hypothyroid patients with a baseline median TSH of 30 mU/l and a median QoL score of 29 were included. After twelve months of L-T4 treatment, the ThyPRO-39 QoL score had significantly improved to a median score of 14, while REE per kg fat-free mass (FFM) increased significantly from a mean of 26.5 to 28.7 kcal/day/kg (p < 0.001). Change in ThyPRO-39 was not associated with a change in REE/FFM (unstandardized coefficient (USC): 0.09 with confidence interval (CI): -1.93 to 2.11, p=0.93) but was positively predicted by baseline body mass index (BMI) (USC: 1.54 with CI: 0.59 to 2.49, (p=0.002), without association with weight loss (USC: 0.33 with CI: -1.21 to 1.27, p=0.96).

Improvement in QoL as measured by ThyPRO-39 after initiation of L-T4 therapy for hypothyroidism was not associated with changes in REE. High baseline BMI, but not weight loss during therapy, was associated with improvement in QoL. This trail is registered with www.Clinicaltrials.gov (registration no. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02891668).

Prevalence of Hypothyroidism in Pregnant Women in India: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

Thyroid Cancer

This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the prevalence of hypothyroidism among pregnant women in India.

We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Shodhganga (Indian thesis repository) for observational studies, providing prevalence of hypothyroidism among pregnant women in India. Systematic study selection and data extraction procedures were followed. Quality assessment of each study was done using JBI critical appraisal checklist. The random effects model was used for pooling the effect sizes. Publication bias was assessed using the funnel plot and rank correlation test. I2 statistics was used to measure heterogeneity across the studies. Heterogeneity in the pooled estimates was further explored with subgroup analyses and meta-regression analysis.

Sixty-one studies were found eligible and included in this review. The pooled estimate of the prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women was 11.07% (95% CI: 8.79-13.84, I2 = 99%). Pooled prevalence estimates of subclinical and overt hypothyroidism are 9.51% (95% CI: 7.48-12.04, I2 = 98%) and 2.74% (95% CI: 2.08-3.58, I2 = 94%).

We documented 11.07% pooled prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women in India.

Retracted: Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis: Clinical Challenges.

Thyroid Cancer

[This retracts the article DOI: 10.1155/2014/649502.].