The latest medical research on Medical Organisation

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about medical organisation gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Investigating primary healthcare practitioners' barriers and enablers to referral of patients with COPD to pulmonary rehabilitation: a mixed-methods study using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

BMJ Open

Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is a highly effective, recommended intervention for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Using behavioural theory within mixed-methods research to understand why referral remains low enables the development of targeted interventions in order to improve future PR referral.

Phase 1: semistructured interviews. Phase 2: a 54-item paper and online questionnaire, based on the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Content and descriptive analysis utilised. Data mixed at two points: instrument design and interpretation.

19 PHCPs took part in interviews and 233 responded to the survey. Integrated results revealed that PHCPs with a post qualifying respiratory qualification (154/241; 63.9%) referred more frequently (91/154; 59.1%) than those without (28/87; 32.2%). There were more barriers than enablers for referral in all 13 TDF domains. Key barriers included: infrequent engagement from PR provider to referrer, concern around patient's physical ability and access to PR (particularly for those in work), assumed poor patient motivation, no clear practice referrer and few referral opportunities. These mapped to domains: belief about capabilities, social influences, environment, optimism, skills and social and professional role. Enablers to referral were observed in knowledge, social influences memory and environment domains. Many PHCPs believed in the physical and psychological value of PR. Helpful enablers were out-of-practice support from respiratory interested colleagues, dedicated referral time (annual review) and on-screen referral prompts.

Referral to PR is complex. Barriers outweighed enablers. Aligning these findings to behaviour change techniques will identify interventions to overcome barriers and strengthen enablers, thereby increasing referral of patients with COPD to PR.

Exploring the role of social capital, self-efficacy and social contagion in shaping lifestyle and mental health among students representing the future healthcare workforce in Palestine: social cohort study protocol.

BMJ Open

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and depression form an unhealthy mix. The project focuses on potentially effective psychosocial factors shaping health-related habits and mental health. The study is conducted among health domain students. Understanding what shapes their health will determine their quality of care. The study is implemented at An-Najah National University in Palestine. This zone of continuous conflict psychological stress is high and mental health problems are stigmatised.

Students who are enrolled in second and third year will be invited to fill in a baseline and two follow-up online questionnaires. The questionnaires will assess: health behaviours and outcomes (health-related habits, obesity and mental health), main predictors (social capital, social network, self-efficacy), confounders (general and sociodemographic characteristics) and effect modifiers (sense of coherence (SOC) and family SOC). Friendships within participating students will be identified by allowing students to name their friends from a pull-down menu of all students. Descriptive statistics and scores will describe participant's characteristics. The relationship between health behaviour, outcomes and main predictors will be examined by regression and structural equation models. Clustering of health behaviours and outcomes will be assessed by permutation tests. Their spread within the network of friends will be investigated by longitudinal generalised estimating equations.

The study will identify the prevalence of NCD-related health habits and mental health aspects in the future healthcare workforce in Palestine. It will be the first study to address the role of psychosocial factors for the targeted students. It has the potential to identify targets for promoting physical and mental health among these future professionals.

Ethical approval was obtained from Ethikkommission Nordwest- und Zentralschweiz (EKNZ) in Switzerland and the Institutional Review Board Committee (IRBC) in Palestine. Participation in the study is voluntary and requires informed consent. The data management methodology ensures the confidentiality of the data. The outcomes of the study will be published as scientific papers. In addition, it will be presented in stakeholder conferences and to students at An-Najah National University.

Associations of functional disability and behavioural risk factors with social participation of older adults: a cross-sectional analysis from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging.

BMJ Open

To examine: (1) the associations of functional disability and behavioural risk factors with social participation; and (2) whether the association between functional disability and social participation is modified by co-occurrence of behavioural risk factors.

Social participation was assessed using frequency of participant involvement in eight different social activities in the past 12 months. Responses for each category were converted into number of days per month. Total social participation score (range: 0-180) was based on summing frequencies over all eight activities representing number of social activities per month.

Functional disability was associated with participating in fewer social activities (difference in mean total social participation score, b=-1.1, 95% CI -1.5 to -0.7). In comparison to no behavioural risk factors, presence of any one (b=-2.7, 95% CI -3.1 to -2.3), any two (b=-4.6, 95% CI -5.0 to -4.2), any three (b=-6.3, 95% CI -6.8 to -5.9) and all four (b=-7.8, 95% CI -9.0 to -6.6) behavioural risk factors was associated with lower social participation. The association between functional disability and social participation was modified by the presence of behavioural risk factors with the lowest social participation observed for adults with disability and all four behavioural risk factors (b=-4.3, 95% CI -7.5 to -1.2).

Individuals with functional disabilities and behavioural risk factors are more likely to experience restrictions in social participation. Public health interventions that encourage healthy lifestyle behaviours may help mitigate the impact of functional disabilities on social participation in the ageing population.

Mapping registered nurse anaesthetists' intraoperative work: tasks, multitasking, interruptions and their causes, and interactions: a prospective observational study.

BMJ Open

Safe anaesthesia care is a fundamental part of healthcare. In a previous study, registered nurse anaesthetists (RNAs) had the highest task frequency, with the largest amount of multitasking and interruptions among all professionals working in a surgical team. There is a lack of knowledge on how these factors are distributed during the intraoperative anaesthesia care process, and what implications they might have on safety and quality of care.

To map the RNAs' work as done in practice, including tasks, multitasking, interruptions and their causes, and interactions, during all phases of the intraoperative anaesthesia work process.

Structured observations of RNAs (n=8) conducted during 30 procedures lasting a total of 73 hours in an operating department at a county hospital in Sweden, using the Work Observation Method By Activity Timing tool.

High task intensity and multitasking were revealed during preparation for anaesthesia induction (79 tasks/hour, 61.9% of task time spent multitasking), anaesthesia induction (98 tasks/hour, 50.7%) and preparation for anaesthesia maintenance (86 tasks/hour, 80.2%). Frequent interruptions took place during preoperative preparation (4.7 /hour), anaesthesia induction (6.2 /hour) and preparation for anaesthesia maintenance (4.3 /hour). The interruptions were most often related to medication care (n=54, 19.8%), equipment issues (n=40, 14.7%) or the procedure itself (n=39, 14.3%). RNAs' work was conducted mostly independently (58.4%), but RNAs interacted with multiple professionals in and outside the operating room during anaesthesia.

The tasks, multitasking, interruptions and their causes, and interactions during different phases illustrated the RNAs' work as done, as part of a complex adaptive system. Management of safety in the most intense phases-preparing for anaesthesia induction, induction and preparing for anaesthesia maintenance-should be investigated further. The complexity and adaptivity of the nature of RNAs' work should be taken into consideration in future management, development, research and education.

Non-invasive ventilation versus oxygen therapy after extubation in patients with obesity in intensive care units: the multicentre randomised EXTUB-OBESE study protocol.

BMJ Open


The NIV versus oxygen therapy after extubation in patients with obesity in ICUs protocol (EXTUB-obese) trial is an investigator-initiated, multicentre, stratified, parallel-group unblinded trial with an electronic system-based randomisation. Patients with obesity defined as a body mass index ≥30 kg/m² will be randomly assigned in the 'NIV-group' to receive prophylactic NIV applied immediately after extubation combined with high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) or standard oxygen between NIV sessions versus in the 'oxygen therapy group' to receive oxygen therapy alone (HFNO or standard oxygen,). The primary outcome is treatment failure within the 72 hours, defined as reintubation for mechanical ventilation, switch to the other study treatment, or premature study-treatment discontinuation (at the request of the patient or for medical reasons such as gastric distention). The single, prespecified, secondary outcome is the incidence of ARF until day 7. Other outcomes analysed will include tracheal intubation rate at day 7 and day 28, length of ICU and hospital stay, ICU mortality, day 28 and day 90 mortality.

The study project has been approved by the appropriate ethics committee 'Comité-de-Protection-des-Personnes Ile de FranceV- Cat2 2019-A00956-51'. Informed consent is required. The results will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at one or more scientific conferences. If use of NIV shows positive effects, teams (medical and surgical) will use NIV following extubation of critically ill patients with obesity.

Association between health literacy and multimorbidity: a nationwide, cross-sectional study of a Japanese population.

BMJ Open

To examine the relationship between health literacy and multimorbidity.

Multimorbidity, the primary outcome measure, was defined as the presence of two or more chronic diseases.

Of the 3678 participants, 824 (22.4%) had multimorbidity. The mean functional health literacy (FHL) and communicative and critical health literacy (CCHL) scores were 3.2 (SD, 0.7) and 3.6 (SD, 0.9), respectively. In the univariable analysis, both scores were associated with multimorbidity (p<0.001). However, in the multivariable modified Poisson regression analysis, only the FHL score was significantly associated with multimorbidity (per 1-point increase, 0.91; 95% CI 0.84 to 0.99).

After adjusting for confounding variables, FHL, not CCHL, was significantly related to the presence of multimorbidity. Further longitudinal studies are required to examine the causal relationship between health literacy and multimorbidity.

Characteristics and management of adolescents attending the ED with fever: a prospective multicentre study.

BMJ Open

Most studies on febrile children have focused on infants and young children with serious bacterial infection (SBI). Although population studies have described an increased risk of sepsis in adolescents, little is known about febrile adolescents attending the emergency department (ED). We aimed to describe patient characteristics and management of febrile adolescents attending the ED.

The MOFICHE/PERFORM study (Management and Outcome of Febrile Children in Europe/Personalised Risk assessment in Febrile illness to Optimise Real-life Management across the European Union), a prospective multicentre study, took place at 12 European EDs. Descriptive and multivariable regression analyses were performed, comparing febrile adolescents (12-18 years) with younger children in terms of patient characteristics, markers of disease severity (vital signs, clinical alarming signs), management (diagnostic tests, therapy, admission) and diagnosis (focus, viral/bacterial infection).

37 420 encounters were included, of which 2577 (6.9%) were adolescents. Adolescents were more often triaged as highly urgent (38.9% vs 34.5%) and described as ill appearing (23.1% vs 15.6%) than younger children. Increased work of breathing and a non-blanching rash were present less often in adolescents, while neurological signs were present more often (1% vs 0%). C reactive protein tests were performed more frequently in adolescents and were more often abnormal (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.7, 95% CI 1.5 to 1.9). Adolescents were more often diagnosed with SBI (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.6 to 2.0) and sepsis/meningitis (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 5.0) and were more frequently admitted (aOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.4) and treated with intravenous antibiotics (aOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.5 to 2.0).

Although younger children presented to the ED more frequently, adolescents were more often diagnosed with SBI and sepsis/meningitis. Our data emphasise the importance of awareness of severe infections in adolescents.

Provision of end-of-life care in primary care: a survey of issues and outcomes in the Australian context.

BMJ Open

To describe general practitioners' (GPs) involvement in end-of-life care, continuity and outcomes of care, and reported management challenges in the Australian context.

Sixty-three GPs across three Australian states participated in a follow-up survey to report on care provided for decedents in the last year life using a clinic-based data collection process. The study was conducted between September 2018 and August 2019.

Approximately one-third of GPs had received formal palliative care training. Practitioners considered themselves as either the primary care coordinator (53.2% of reported patients) or part of the management team (40.4% of reported patients) in the final year of care. In the last week of life, patients frequently experienced reduced appetite (80.6%), fatigue (77.9%) and psychological problems (44.9%), with GPs reporting that the alleviation of these symptoms were less than optimal. Practitioners were highly involved in end-of-life care (eg, home visits, consultations via telephone and family meetings), and perceived higher levels of satisfaction with communication with palliative care services than other external services. For one-third of patients, GPs reported that the last year of care could potentially have been improved.

There are continuing needs for integration of palliative care training into medical education and reforms of healthcare systems to further support GPs' involvement in end-of-life care. Further, more extensive collection of clinical data is needed to evaluate and support primary care management of end-of-life patients in general practice.

Associations of state-level and county-level hate crimes with individual-level cardiovascular risk factors in a prospective cohort study of middle-aged Americans: the National Longitudinal Survey of Youths 1979.

BMJ Open

There have been long-standing debates about the potential health consequences of hate crimes over and above other types of crimes. Besides the direct consequences for victims, less is known about whether hate crimes have spillover effects onto the health of local residents.

We drew data on cardiovascular disease risk factors from middle-aged Americans in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youths 1979 and on hate crimes from the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports. Employing multivariable logistic regression, we estimated the associations between changes in state/county-level all and group-specific hate crime rates from 2000 to 2006 and incident individual-level diabetes, hypertension, obesity and depressive symptoms from 2008 to 2016. All models controlled for individual-level sociodemographic factors and financial strain, county-level and state-level changes in the total crime rate, the percentage of non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic/Latino residents, and median household income, as well as state-level changes in the percentage of residents aged 65 years or older and the unemployment rate.

1-SD increases in state-level all and race/ethnicity-based hate crime rates were associated with 20% (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.35) and 15% higher odds (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.31) of incident diabetes, respectively. At the county level, a 1-SD increase in the all hate crime rate was linked to 8% higher odds (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.16) of obesity, while a 1-SD increase in the race/ethnicity-based hate crime rate was associated with 8% higher odds (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.15) of obesity and 9% higher odds (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.17) of hypertension. We found no significant associations for depressive symptoms, and no interactions between race/ethnicity-based hate crime rates and individual-level race/ethnicity.

Living in areas with higher hate crime rates may confer higher odds of hypertension, diabetes and obesity.

Randomised trial estimating length of endotracheal tube insertion using gestational age or nasal-tragus length in newborns: a study protocol.

BMJ Open


This is an open-label multi-centre randomised controlled trial, where gestational age and NTL methods will be used to determine the initial ETT insertion depth in term and preterm infants that are less than 28 days old, requiring oral intubation in the delivery room or neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

The trial is aimed to recruit 454 infants over 3 years across tertiary level NICUs.

The primary outcome includes an optimally positioned ETT, defined as an ETT tip between the upper border of the first thoracic vertebra and the lower border of the second thoracic vertebra. The outcome is assessed by a paediatric radiologist, who will be masked to the group assignment. Secondary outcomes are malpositioned ETT tips, pneumothorax, ETT repositioning, chronic lung disease, invasive ventilation days, and death.

Data will be analysed using the intention-to-treat principle. The primary and categorical secondary outcomes will be compared using the χ2 test. Adjusted risk ratios of outcomes will be calculated along with 95% CIs through multivariable logistic regression analysis, including covariates deemed biologically to influence the outcomes.

The study has been approved by the PNU Research Ethics Board (20-0148) and the respective ethical review boards of the participating centres. The results will be disseminated through conference meetings, social media platforms, and publications in scientific journals.

Systematic review of psychosocial needs assessment tools for caregivers of paediatric patients with dermatological conditions.

BMJ Open

To identify validated dermatology-specific and disease-specific psychosocial needs assessment tools for caregivers of paediatric patients with dermatological conditions. A secondary objective was to assess the adequacy of their measurement properties.

EMBASE, PsycINFO, MEDLINE (in Ovid SP), Cochrane, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health EBSCO, U Search and Web of Science were searched (2000-5 October 2021). Grey literature, bibliographies, online databases of QoL tools and several trial registers were searched (2000-5 Oct 2021).

Eligible studies involved adult caregivers caring for a child (no age limit) with any form of any skin condition. Predetermined exclusion criteria, as per protocol, were applied to the search results.

Title, abstract, full-text screening and data abstraction (standardised forms) were done independently in duplicate. Both's predefined methodological criteria assessed risk of bias. Narrative synthesis was used to present the findings.

187 full-text articles were examined from a total of 8979 records. Most tools were generic QoL tools, relevant to spouse/partner or based on their child's perception of the disease or assessed patients' quality of life. Following quality appraisal, 26 articles were identified, and 11 tools (1 dermatology-specific and 10 disease-specific) were included. Information outcome domains were provided for each tool (study specific, questionnaire specific, adequacy of measurement properties and risk of bias). No literature was found pertaining to the use of these tools within healthcare settings and/or as e-tools.

With limited evidence supporting the quality of their methodological and measurement properties, this review will inform future dermatological Core Outcome Set development and improve evidence-based clinical decisions. Increasing demand on limited healthcare resources justifies the codevelopment of an accessible solution-focused psychosocial needs assessment e-tool to promote caregiver health outcomes.

PROSPERO (CRD42019159956).

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of cancer in a large community population under investigation for cardiovascular disease: a retrospective cohort study.

BMJ Open

It remains unclear whether vitamin D status is related to cancer risk. We examined this relationship using laboratory, administrative and survey data.

Patients tested for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D from 2009 to 2013 without a past cancer diagnosis but with an ECG and body mass index ±3 months from testing were included. Age, sex, mean hours of daylight during month of testing were linked to census dissemination area-level indicators of socioeconomic status measured in 2011.

Hospital discharge diagnoses for any cancer, major cancer (colorectal, breast, lung, prostate, skin) and other cancers >3 months from testing from 2009 to 2016. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine associations with incident cancer after adjusting for potential confounders. Interactions were tested using multiplicative terms.

Among 72 171 patients, there were 3439 cancer diagnoses over a median of 5.9 years. After adjustment, increasing quartile of serum 25-OH vitamin D was significantly associated with an increased risk of any cancer and major cancer, however this was completely driven by an increased risk of skin cancer (Q4 vs Q1: HR=2.56, 95% CI 1.70 to 3.86, p for linear trend <0.01). This association was strengthened among individuals residing in communities with higher proportions of non-citizens, recent immigrants, visible (non-white) minorities and those not speaking an official Canadian language (English or French) at home.

Higher vitamin D status was associated with a greater risk of skin cancer in a large community population under investigation for cardiovascular disease. This association was likely due to sun exposure and may be modified by community variation in vitamin D supplementation.