The latest medical research on Oncology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about oncology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Regulatory mechanisms of LuxS/AI-2 System and bacterial resistance.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

The quorum sensing (QS) system is an intercellular cell-cell communication mechanism that controls the expression of genes involved in a variety of...

Isavuconazole diffusion in infected human brain.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

We report cases of a 39-year-old woman with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and of 21-year-old man with chronic granulomatous disease treated for cere...

Population Pharmacokinetics of Pretomanid.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

A population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model for pretomanid was developed using data from 14 studies in the pretomanid development program: six phase...

Utility of targeted, amplicon-based deep sequencing to detect resistance to first-line tuberculosis drugs in Botswana.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is an alarming threat and targeted deep sequencing (DS) may be an effective method for rapid identification of dru...

A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo- and Positive-Controlled Crossover Study of the Effects of Omadacycline on QT/QTc Intervals in Healthy Subjects.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Omadacycline, an aminomethylcycline, is a once-daily intravenous (i.v.) and oral antibiotic that is approved in the United States for treatment of ...

Co-occurring genomic alterations in non-small-cell lung cancer biology and therapy.

Nature Reviews Cancer

The impressive clinical activity of small-molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors for oncogene-addicted subgroups of non-small-cell lung cance...

Clinical actionability of molecular targets in endometrial cancer.

Nature Reviews Cancer

Endometrial cancer accounts for ~76,000 deaths among women each year worldwide. Disease mortality and the increasing number of new diagnoses make e...

Publisher Correction: Bach's symphony for metastasis.

Nature Reviews Cancer

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

Efficacy of EGFR plus TNF inhibition in a preclinical model of temozolomide-resistant glioblastoma.

Neuro-Oncology

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant adult brain tumor. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the standard of care and is most effective in GBMs that lack the DNA repair protein MGMT. Moreover, even initially responsive tumors develop a secondary resistance to TMZ and become untreatable. Since aberrant EGFR signaling is widespread in GBM, EGFR inhibition has been tried in multiple clinical trials without success. We recently reported that inhibiting EGFR leads to increased secretion of TNF and activation of a survival pathway in GBM. Here, we compare the efficacy of TMZ versus EGFR plus TNF inhibition in an orthotopic mouse model of GBM.

We use an orthotopic model to examine the efficacy of TMZ versus EGFR plus TNF inhibition in multiple subsets of GBMs including MGMT methylated and unmethylated primary GBMs, recurrent GBMs and GBMs rendered experimentally resistant to TMZ.

The efficacy of the two treatments was similar in MGMT methylated GBMs. However, in MGMT unmethylated GBMs, a combination of EGFR plus TNF inhibition was more effective. We demonstrate that the two treatment approaches target distinct and non-overlapping pathways. Thus, importantly, EGFR plus TNF inhibition remains effective in TMZ resistant recurrent GBMs and in GBMs rendered experimentally resistant to TMZ.

EGFR inhibition combined with a blunting of the accompanying TNF-driven adaptive response could be a viable therapeutic approach in MGMT unmethylated and recurrent EGFR-expressing GBMs.

Temporal muscle thickness is an independent prognostic marker in patients with progressive glioblastoma: translational imaging analysis of the EORTC 26101 trial.

Neuro-Oncology

Temporal muscle thickness (TMT) was described as surrogate marker of skeletal muscle mass. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic relevance of TMT in patients with progressive glioblastoma.

TMT was analyzed on cranial magnetic resonance images of 596 patients with progression of glioblastoma after radio-chemotherapy enrolled in the EORTC 26101 trial. An optimal TMT cutoff for overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) was defined in the training cohort (n=260, phase 2). Patients were grouped as "below" or "above" the TMT cutoff and associations with OS and PFS were tested using the Cox model adjusted for important risk factors. Findings were validated in a test cohort (n=308, phase 3).

An optimal baseline TMT cutoff of 7.2 mm was obtained in the training cohort for both OS and PFS (AUC=0.64). Univariate analyses estimated a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.70, p<0.0001) for OS and a HR of 0.49 (95% CI: 0.38, 0.64, p<0.0001) for PFS for the comparison of training cohort patients above versus below the TMT cutoff. Similar results were obtained in Cox models adjusted for important risk factors with relevance in the trial for OS (HR of 0.54, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.70, p<0.0001) and PFS (HR of 0.47, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.61, p<0.0001). Results were confirmed in the validation cohort.

Reduced TMT is an independent negative prognostic parameter in patients with progressive glioblastoma and may help to facilitate patient management by supporting patient stratification for therapeutic interventions or clinical trials.

Impact of triazole therapeutic drug monitoring availability and timing.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is an established strategy to optimize antifungal therapy with certain triazoles. While established relationships...

Single-Center Investigation of the Pharmacokinetics of WCK 4282 (Cefepime-Tazobactam Combination) in Renal Impairment.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

WCK 4282 is a combination product of cefepime (FEP) and tazobactam (TAZ) in 1:1 ratio currently under development for treatment of multidrug-resist...