The latest medical research on Oncology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about oncology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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The ASM Journals Committee Values the Contributions of Black Microbiologists.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Black lives matter. The ongoing problem of police brutality and the resulting deaths of George Floyd (1), Breonna Taylor (2), and many other Black ...

Effect of Vancomycin-Associated Acute Kidney Injury on Incidence of 30-Day Readmissions Among Hospitalized Veterans' Affairs Patients with Skin and Skin Structure Infections.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Among hospitalized adults who received vancomycin for their skin and skin structure infection (SSSI), patients who experienced acute kidney injury ...

(p)ppGpp and its role in bacterial persistence: New challenges.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Antibiotic failure is not only due to the development of resistance by pathogens, but it can also often be explained by persistence and tolerance. ...

Sirtuin activation targets IDH-mutant tumors.

Neuro-Oncology

IDH-mutant tumors exhibit an altered metabolic state and are critically dependent upon nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) for cellular survival. NAD+ steady-state levels can be influenced by both biosynthetic and consumptive processes. Here, we investigated activation of sirtuin (SIRT) enzymes, which consume NAD+ as a coenzyme, as a potential mechanism to reduce cellular NAD+ levels in these tumors.

The effect of inhibition or activation of Sirtuin activity, using small molecules, CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing and inducible overexpression, was investigated in IDH-mutant tumor lines, including patient-derived IDH-mutant glioma lines.

We found that SIRT1 activation led to marked augmentation of NAD+ depletion and accentuation of cytotoxicity, when combined with nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase inhibition (NAMPTi), consistent with the enzymatic activity of SIRT1 as a primary cellular NAD+ consumer in IDH-mutant cells. Activation of SIRT1 through either genetic overexpression or pharmacologic SIRT1-activating compounds (STACs), an existing class of well-tolerated drugs, led to inhibition of IDH1-mutant tumor cell growth.

Activation of SIRT1 can selectively target IDH-mutant tumors. These findings indicate that relatively non-toxic STACs, administered either alone or in combination with NAMPTi, could alter the growth trajectory of IDH-mutant gliomas, while minimizing toxicity associated with cytotoxic chemotherapeutic regimens.

Fully Automated Hybrid Approach to Predict the IDH Mutation Status of Gliomas via Deep Learning and Radiomics.

Neuro-Oncology

Glioma prognosis depends on the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status. We aimed to predict the IDH status of gliomas from preoperative MR images using a fully automated hybrid approach with convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and radiomics.

We reviewed 1,166 preoperative MR images of gliomas (grades II-IV) from Severance Hospital (n=856, Severance Set), Seoul National University Hospital (n=107, SNUH set), and The Cancer Imaging Archive (n=203, TCIA set). The Severance set was subdivided into the development (n=727) and internal test (n=129) sets. Based on T1 postcontrast, T2, and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery images, a fully automated model was developed that comprised a CNN for tumor segmentation (Model 1) and CNN-based classifier for IDH status prediction (Model 2) that uses a hybrid approach based on 2-dimensional tumor images and radiomic features from 3-dimensional tumor shape and loci guided by Model 1. The trained model was tested on internal (a subset of the Severance set) and external (SNUH and TCIA) test sets.

The CNN for tumor segmentation (Model 1) achieved a dice coefficient of 0.86-0.92 across datasets. Our hybrid model achieved accuracies of 93.8%, 87.9%, and 78.8%; with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of 0.96, 0.94, and 0.86; and areas under the precision-recall curves of 0.88, 0.82, and 0.81 in the internal test, SNUH, and TCIA sets, respectively.

Our fully automated hybrid model demonstrated the potential to be a highly reproducible and generalizable tool across different datasets for the noninvasive prediction of the IDH status of gliomas.

Neutrophil diversity and plasticity in tumour progression and therapy.

Nature Reviews Cancer

Neutrophils play a key role in defence against infection and in the activation and regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. In cancer, tumour-as...

Lactoferrin-derived peptide lactofungin is potently synergistic with amphotericin B.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding glycoprotein with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Previously, we discovered that LF synergistically enha...

The Clinically Approved Antifungal Drug Posaconazole Inhibits Human Cytomegalovirus Replication.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Posaconazole (PCZ) is a clinically approved drug used predominantly for prophylaxis and salvage therapy of fungal infections. Here, we report its p...

Topical Antibiotic Elution in a Collagen-Rich Hydrogel is Successful for Inhibiting Bacterial Growth and Biofilm Formation in Vitro.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Chronic wounds are a prominent concern, accounting for $25 billion of healthcare costs annually. Biofilms have been implicated in delayed wound closure, but treatment options continue to be limited and susceptible to developing antibiotic resistance. A novel collagen-rich hydrogel derived from human extracellular matrix presents an avenue for treating chronic wounds by providing appropriate extracellular proteins for healing and promoting neovascularization. Using the hydrogel as a delivery system for localized secretion of therapeutic dosage of antibiotics presents an attractive means of maximizing delivery while minimizing systemic side-effects. We hypothesize that the hydrogel can provide controlled elution of antibiotics leading to inhibition of bacterial growth and disruption of biofilm formation.

The rate of antibiotic elution from the collagen-rich hydrogel and the efficacy of biofilm disruption was assessed with Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacterial growth inhibition, biofilm disruption, and mammalian cell cytotoxicity were quantified using in vitro models.

The antibiotic-loaded hydrogel showed sustained release of antibiotics for up to 24 hours at therapeutic levels. The treatment inhibited bacterial growth and disrupted biofilm formation at multiple time points. The hydrogel was capable of accommodating various classes of antibiotics and did not result in cytotoxicity in mammalian fibroblasts or adipose stem cellsConclusion: An antibiotic-loaded collagen-rich hydrogel is capable of controlled antibiotic release effective for bacteria cell death without native cell death. A human-derived hydrogel that is capable of eluting therapeutic levels of antibiotic is an exciting prospect in the field of chronic wound healing.

A complex karyotype with t(11;12)(q23;p13) translocation with coexistent clones of deletion 5q and cryptic deletion 7q in acute myeloid leukemia.

Indian Journal of Cancer

We report a rare case of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with a cytogenetically complex karyotype with coexistence of KMT2A/MLL Mixed Lineage Leukemia...

Study of pathological complete response rate with neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiation with paclitaxel in locally advanced breast cancer.

Indian Journal of Cancer

Neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiation (CTRT) is not widely practiced in breast cancers. The current study presents our experience with the use of neoadjuvant CTRT in patients with locally advanced breast cancers (LABC) treated at our center.

The study included all consecutive female patients with inoperable stage III LABC treated at Cancer Institute (W.I.A), Chennai, India, from December 2015 to September 2016. Data were collected retrospectively from the patients' case records. The impact of neoadjuvant CTRT on the pathological complete response (pCR) and survival was analyzed. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisted of 4 cycles of adriamycin and cyclophosphamide given either before or after 4 cycles of paclitaxel. All chemotherapy cycles were given once in 3 weeks. Concurrent radiotherapy was incorporated with 2 cycles of paclitaxel.

The study included 100 patients with a median age of 49 years, among whom 9 (9%) had IIIA disease, 73 (73%) IIIB, and 18 (18%) had IIIC disease. The hormone receptor-positive disease was observed in 36 (36%) patients, triple-negative in 24 (24%), and Her2/neu positive disease in 40 (40%) patients. All patients were operable after completing the planned neoadjuvant treatments. Ninety-one out of 100 (91%) patients underwent modified radical mastectomy whereas 9 (9%) did not consent for surgery. Among the patients who underwent MRM, 34/91 (37.7%) patients had a pCR. Moreover, pCR was observed in 12/22 (54.5%) patients with triple-negative disease, 10/34 (29.4%) patients with hormone receptor-positive disease, and 12/35 (34.2%) patients with Her2/neu positive disease (P = 0.19). Most common morbidity observed was grade 3 skin reactions. The 2-year event-free survival and overall survival for the entire cohort was 73.1% and 88%, respectively.

Neoadjuvant CTRT is associated with a higher pCR rate than what has been reported with neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone. Further prospective studies are required to confirm our findings.