The latest medical research on Oncology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about oncology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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The metabolism of cancer cells during metastasis.

Nature Reviews Cancer

Metastasis formation is the major cause of death in most patients with cancer. Despite extensive research, targeting metastatic seeding and coloniz...

Antitumour immunity regulated by aberrant ERBB family signalling.

Nature Reviews Cancer

Aberrant signalling of ERBB family members plays an important role in tumorigenesis and in the escape from antitumour immunity in multiple malignan...

Aneuploidy as a promoter and suppressor of malignant growth.

Nature Reviews Cancer

Aneuploidy has been recognized as a hallmark of tumorigenesis for more than 100 years, but the connection between chromosomal errors and malignant ...

Perineum and penile invasion of recurrent prostate carcinoma shown by Ga-68 PSMA PET/CT.

Indian Journal of Cancer

Imaging of prostate cancer has recently had new modalities. Ga-68 Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Positron Emission Tomography/Computed T...

Mediastinal small cell carcinoma with a metastasis to the orbit: A rare carcinoma with an unusual metastatic progression.

Indian Journal of Cancer

Extraocular muscle (EOM) is a rare site for orbital metastasis. We presented a case of solitary EOM metastasis from mediastinal small cell cancer (...

A rare RET mutation in an Indian pedigree with familial medullary thyroid carcinoma.

Indian Journal of Cancer

Familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC) is a variant of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) associated with the RET gene mutation. We re...

Accelerated drug approvals in oncology: Pros and cons.

Indian Journal of Cancer

The inevitable surge of the accelerated approval process, especially for oncology drugs, has been a success story. However, the use of surrogate en...

Clinical characteristics and survival profile of young versus old colorectal cancer patients at a tertiary cancer center in North India over a period of 5 years.

Indian Journal of Cancer

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is mostly considered a disease of the elderly. But the rate is increasing among young adults and is associated with different clinical patterns. The objective was to study the frequency of CRC in young patients and compare the clinicopathological profile and survival with the older cohort.

Five-year (2012-2016) data of the 912 consecutive CRC cases treated at the center were analyzed. Clinical and histopathological characteristics were compared in young (≤40) and older (>40) patients. Descriptive statistics were used for data presentation. Categorical data were compared by the Chi-square test; survival analyses were performed by Kaplan-Meier method.

In total, 231 (25.3%) and 681 (74.7%) cases were in the young and older age groups, respectively. Male predominance was noted. Young patients presented predominantly in stage III (46%). Majority of the young patients harbored left-sided tumors (75.8% vs 63.7% in old patients, P = 0.001) and rectum was the favored site in young patients (53.7% vs 37%; P < 0.001). Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma was more common in the young age group (46.88% vs 24.16% in old patients, P < 0.001), also signet-ring cell morphology occurred more often in young patients (11.7% vs 4%, P < 0.001). Survival was inferior in the patients presenting at an advanced stage or with adverse histology or poor tumor grade. However, stage-specific survival showed no significant difference between both groups.

This study shows that though young CRC patients present with higher stage, aggressive morphology, and predominantly rectal localization, the overall survival and stage-specific survival did not differ significantly from the older patients.

Successful combination of crizotinib and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in relapsed ALK-positive ALCL.

Indian Journal of Cancer

We report a case wherein a combination of crizotinib and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) cured a 20-year-old woman with relapsed and...

Second-hand smoke exposure and its determinants among nonsmoking adolescents residing in slum areas of Bhubaneswar, India.

Indian Journal of Cancer

Second-hand exposure (SHS) is a significant public health problem and accounts for over 600,000 deaths among non smokers worldwide every year. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence and determinants of SHS exposure among nonsmoking adolescents residing in slum areas of Bhubaneswar, India.

Multistage cluster random sampling was used to select 259 nonsmoking adolescents from eleven slum areas. We used descriptive statistics to determine the prevalence of SHS exposure and inferential statistics using multivariable logistic regression model to identify factors associated with SHS exposure.

Of the 259 adolescent participants, 67 (25.9%) were exposed to SHS inside home and 97 (37.5%) were exposed outside home. About 47.5% adolescents were exposed to anti-smoking media messages and 22.8% were unaware of the harmful effects of exposure to SHS. SHS exposure inside home was associated with smokeless tobacco use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 10.64; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.57-43.48), illiteracy of father (aOR: 5.40; 95% CI: 1.51-19.32), non-exposure to antismoking media messages (aOR: 3.53; 95% CI: 1.06-11.72), and absence of knowledge regarding harmful effects of SHS (aOR: 3.72; 95% CI: 1.15-12.05). Also, variables like male gender (aOR: 10.31; 95% CI: 4.50-23.81), smokeless tobacco use (aOR: 2.43; 95% CI: 1.05-5.65), illiteracy of father (aOR: 4.58; 95% CI: 1.23-17.14), and non-exposure to antismoking media messages (aOR: 4.04; 95% CI: 1.49-10.89) had increased SHS exposure outside home.

The findings underscore the urgent need to implement comprehensive smoke-free policies to reduce SHS exposure among slum adolescents.

Feasibility, uptake and real-life challenges of a rural cervical and breast cancer screening program in Vellore, Tamil Nadu, South India.

Indian Journal of Cancer

Early detection of breast and cervical cancer by organized screening has been found to reduce mortality rates in trials, but documentation of programme results and challenges is rarely done from non-trial settings. This study reports results of a population-based cancer control programme in a rural block in Vellore, Tamil Nadu, population size (116,085), targeting a population of 18,490 women aged 25-60 years, between November 2014 and March 2018.

Village-based health education sessions were conducted by social workers, using trained volunteers and health workers to motivate eligible women. Screening was done at a secondary level hospital, by trained general physicians using visual inspection with acetic acid and clinical breast examination, followed by colposcopy, radiological imaging (breast) and biopsy as required.

A total of 8 volunteers and 17 health workers motivated women for 93 health education and screening sessions, in 46 out of 82 villages. While 1,890/18,490 (10.2 per cent) were screened for breast cancer, 1,783 (9.6 per cent) were screened for cervical cancer, with a yield of 3.4/1,000 for cervical pre-cancer/cancer. The main challenges were creating time for screening activities in a busy secondary hospital and difficulty in ensuring treatment completion of screen-detected cases.

Population-based cancer screening programs can be offered by secondary hospitals that also run primary care services, to increase screening rates. Clear referral systems need to be established, bearing in mind that social factors, especially poor family support, may pose a threat to treatment, in spite of easy availability of cure.

Stereotactic body radiotherapy as a boost after external beam radiotherapy for high-risk prostate cancer patients.

Indian Journal of Cancer

The effect of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy after external radiation in high-risk prostate cancer patients has been proven. Stereotactic body radiotherapy as a less invasive method has similar dosimetric results with HDR brachytherapy. This study aims to evaluate the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response, acute side effects, and quality of life of patients who underwent stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) as a boost after pelvic radiotherapy (RT).

A total of 34 patients diagnosed with high-risk prostate cancer treated with SBRT boost (21 Gy in three fractions) combined with whole pelvic RT (50 Gy in 25 fractions) were evaluated. Biochemical control has been evaluated with PSA before, and after treatment, acute adverse events were evaluated with radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) grading scale and quality of life with the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) scoring system.

The mean follow-up of 34 patients was 41.2 months (range 7-52). The mean initial PSA level was 22.4 ng/mL. None of the patients had experienced a biochemical or clinical relapse of the disease. Grade 2 and higher acute gastrointestinal (GI) was observed in 14%, and genitourinary (GU) toxicity was observed in 29%. None of the patients had grade 3-4 late toxicity.

SBRT boost treatment after pelvic irradiation has been used with a good biochemical control and acceptable toxicity in high-risk prostate cancer patients. More extensive randomized trial results are needed on the subject.