The latest medical research on Oncology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about oncology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Selective depletion of HBV-infected hepatocytes by class A capsid assembly modulators requires high levels of intrahepatic HBV core protein.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Capsid assembly mediated by hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (HBc) is an essential part of the HBV replication cycle, which is the target for d...

Patient outcomes by baseline pathogen resistance phenotype and genotype in CERTAIN-1, a Phase 3 study of cefepime-taniborbactam versus meropenem in adults with complicated urinary tract infection.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

CERTAIN-1 was a Phase 3, double-blind, randomized, parallel group study of the efficacy and safety of cefepime-taniborbactam versus meropenem in the treatment of adults with complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI), including acute pyelonephritis. We determined susceptibility of Enterobacterales and Pseudomonas aeruginosa baseline pathogens to cefepime-taniborbactam and comparators and characterized β-lactam resistance mechanisms. Microbiologic response and clinical response were assessed in patient subsets defined by baseline pathogens that were of cefepime-, multidrug-, or carbapenem-resistant phenotype or that carried β-lactamase genes. Among Enterobacterales baseline pathogens, 26.8%, 4.1%, and 3.0% carried genes for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC, and carbapenemases, respectively. Within each treatment group, while composite success rates at Test of Cure in resistant subsets by pathogen species were similar to those by pathogen overall, composite success rates in meropenem patients were numerically lower for cefepime-resistant Escherichia coli (9/19; 47.4%) and ESBL E. coli (13/25; 52.0%) compared with E. coli overall (62/100; 62.0%). Cefepime-taniborbactam achieved composite success in 7/8 (87.5%) patients with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales and 8/9 (88.9%) patients with Enterobacterales with a carbapenemase gene (5 OXA-48-group; 2 KPC-3; 2 NDM-1). Cefepime-taniborbactam also achieved composite success in 8/16 (50.0%) patients and clinical success in 13/16 (81.3%) patients with P. aeruginosa; corresponding rates were 4/7 (57.1%) and 6/7 (85.7%) for meropenem. Cefepime-taniborbactam demonstrated efficacy in adult cUTI patients with cefepime-, multidrug-, and carbapenem-resistant pathogens including pathogens with ESBL, AmpC, and carbapenemase genes.

This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT03840148.

Consensus Review on Strategies to Improve Delivery Across the BBB Including Focused Ultrasound.

Neuro-Oncology

Drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) has been a major challenge for CNS tumors due to the impermeability of the blood brain barrier (B...

DNA damage response in brain tumors: A Society for Neuro-Oncology consensus review on mechanisms and translational efforts in neuro-oncology.

Neuro-Oncology

DNA damage response (DDR) mechanisms are critical to maintenance of overall genomic stability, and their dysfunction can contribute to oncogenesis....

Towards Consistency in Pediatric Brain Tumor Measurements: Challenges, Solutions, and the Role of AI-Based Segmentation.

Neuro-Oncology

MR imaging is central to the assessment of tumor burden and changes over time in neuro-oncology. Several response assessment guidelines have been s...

Population pharmacokinetics of ravidasvir in adults with chronic hepatitis C virus infection and impact of antiretroviral treatment.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Ravidasvir (RDV) is a novel NS5A inhibitor that exhibits potent pan-genotypic inhibition of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. Sofosbuvir (SOF) p...

Phase 1 drug-drug interaction study to assess the effect of CYP3A4 inhibition and pan-CYP induction on the pharmacokinetics and safety of fosmanogepix in healthy participants.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Immunocompromised patients are susceptible to fungal infections, and drug-drug interactions with antifungals may occur due to concomitant medications. Fosmanogepix [FMGX; active moiety manogepix (MGX)] targets glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored mannoprotein synthesis and maturation, essential for fungal virulence. This phase 1, fixed-sequence study in healthy participants evaluated the effect of strong CYP3A4 inhibitor itraconazole [Cohort 1 (n = 18); FMGX 500 mg intravenous (IV) twice a day (BID )+ itraconazole 200 mg oral once a day (QD)] and pan-CYP inducer rifampin [Cohort 2 (n = 18); FMGX 1,000 mg IV BID + rifampin 600 mg oral QD] on the pharmacokinetics of FMGX and MGX. In cohort 1, geometric mean (GM) MGX Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUCinf were almost similar with and without itraconazole administration. In Cohort 2, GM MGX Cmax was slightly lower and AUC0-t and AUCinf were significantly lower after rifampin administration, with the least squares GM ratio associated 90% confidence intervals (CIs) below 80 - 125% (no effect window). No deaths, serious adverse events (SAEs), or FMGX-related withdrawals were reported. In both cohorts, a total of 188 AEs (n = 30; 186 mild; two moderate) were reported. In all, 37 of 188 AEs (n = 12) were considered FMGX related (most frequent: headache, nausea, and hot flush). Administration of FMGX alone and with itraconazole or rifampin was safe and well tolerated. A strong CYP3A4 inhibitor had no effect on FMGX or MGX exposure. A strong pan-CYP inducer had no effect on FMGX exposure but demonstrated ~45% decrease in MGX exposure.

This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT04166669 and with EudraCT as number 2019-003586-17.

A guide to artificial intelligence for cancer researchers.

Nature Reviews Cancer

Artificial intelligence (AI) has been commoditized. It has evolved from a specialty resource to a readily accessible tool for cancer researchers. A...

Inhibition of endocytic uptake of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and endo-lysosomal acidification by diphenoxylate.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Cell culture-based screening of a chemical library identified diphenoxylate as an antiviral agent against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronav...

Impact of Implementing Paris System on Diagnostic Precision and Management of Urinary Bladder Neoplasms.

Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology

The diagnosis of atypia has always been under question both by the pathologist and the clinician. It was one of the main aims of the Paris system (...

Malignant Transformation of an Ovarian Mature Cystic Teratoma to a Malignant Melanoma.

Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology

Ovarian mature cystic teratomas comprise tissue derived from all three germ layers and constitute 10-20% of all ovarian neoplasms. Malignant transf...