The latest medical research on Oncology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about oncology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Delamanid in Patients with Pulmonary Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

A population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model of delamanid in patients with pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) was developed using da...

Patients with Erythema Migrans: Characterizing the Impact of Initiation of Antibiotic Therapy Prior to Study Enrollment.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Erythema migrans is the most common clinical manifestation of Lyme disease, with concomitant subjective symptoms occurring in ∼65% of cases in the ...

Low Tenofovir Plasma Exposure in HIV Oral Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Recipients with Gastrointestinal Disorders.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Four pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) users with gastro-intestinal disorders (sleeve gastrectomy, terminal ileitis, celiac disease or chronic diarrh...

Mutations and mechanisms of WNT pathway tumour suppressors in cancer.

Nature Reviews Cancer

Mutation-induced activation of WNT-β-catenin signalling is a frequent driver event in human cancer. Sustained WNT-β-catenin pathway activation endo...

Long-term metabolic evolution of brain metastases with suspected radiation necrosis following stereotactic radiosurgery: longitudinal assessment by F-DOPA PET.

Neuro-Oncology

The evolution of radiation necrosis (RN) varies depending on the combination of radionecrotic tissue and active tumor cells. In this study, we characterized the long-term metabolic evolution of RN by sequential PET/CT imaging with 3,4‑dihydroxy‑6‑[ 18F]‑fluoro-l‑phenylalanine (F-DOPA) in patients with brain metastases following stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS).

Thirty consecutive patients with 34 suspected radionecrotic brain metastases following SRS repeated F-DOPA PET/CT every 6 months or yearly in addition to standard MRI monitoring. Diagnoses of local progression (LP) or RN were confirmed histologically or by clinical follow-up. Semiquantitative parameters of F-DOPA uptake were extracted at different time points, and their diagnostic performances were compared with those of corresponding contrast-enhanced MRI.

Ninety-nine F-DOPA PET scans were acquired over a median period of 18 (range: 12-66) months. Median follow-up from the baseline F-DOPA PET/CT was 48 (range 21-95) months. Overall, 24 (70.6%) and 10 (29.4%) lesions were classified as RN and LP, respectively. LP occurred after a median of 18 (range: 12-30) months from baseline PET. F-DOPA tumor-to-brain ratio (TBR) and relative standardized uptake value (rSUV) increased significantly over time in LP lesions, while remaining stable in RN lesions. The parameter showing the best diagnostic performances was rSUV (accuracy = 94.1% for the optimal threshold of 1.92). In contrast, variations of the longest tumor dimension measured on contrast-enhancing MRI did not distinguish between RN and LP.

F-DOPA PET has a high diagnostic accuracy for assessing the long-term evolution of brain metastases following SRS.

2-Oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases in cancer.

Nature Reviews Cancer

2-Oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2OGDDs) are a superfamily of enzymes that play diverse roles in many biological processes, including regulat...

Total Sacrectomy for the Treatment of Advanced Pelvic Chondrosarcoma.

Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology

Primary tumors of sacrum are rare. The most common malignant tumors are metastasis, and only 6% of all malignant tumors arise from the sacrum. Chon...

Use of Thoracodorsal Artery Perforator (Tdap) Flap to Cover a Laparoscopically Harvested Omental Flap After Modified Radical Mastectomy; a Case Report.

Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology

Omental flap was introduced for breast reconstruction after mastectomy either alone or as an adjunct to prosthetic reconstruction. Laparoscopically...

Unanswered Questions on the Optimal Extent of Tongue Cancer Resections.

Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology

Owing to the site- and stage-dependent molecular changes beyond the excised surgical margins of mucosal head and neck squamous cell cancers [HNSCC]...

Retroperitoneal Major Pelvic Arteries' Anatomic Variation: Pictorial Essay and Significance in Obstetrical and Gynecological Surgery.

Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology

Congenital anomalies of the iliac arteries are rare, and are usually discovered incidentally or infrequently intraoperatively.

To show the retroperitoneal major pelvic blood vessels anatomical variation during gynecologic and obstetrics surgeries in cases of retroperitoneal dissection.

We report three cases with incidental finding of anatomical variation in retroperitoneal major pelvic blood vessels. One patient underwent staging laparotomy for endometrial cancer with intraoperative finding of bilateral long internal iliac artery with short common iliac artery. The second patient underwent staging laparotomy for suspicious ovarian mass and mesh sacrocolpopexy for uterine prolapse with accidental finding of kinked long external iliac artery with short common iliac artery. The third patient underwent total hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy for endometrial cancer with incidental finding of bilateral absent internal iliac artery with common iliac artery continuing as external iliac artery.

Anatomical variations in the major retroperitoneal pelvic vasculature should be familiar with during surgeries to avoid inadequate management. Internal iliac artery ligation should be done as low as possible close to the bifurcation in case of long internal iliac artery as in case of bleeding, slipped uterine or injured vesical vessels. Kinked external iliac artery should not be considered as anomaly or swollen node with trial of excision in dissection of lymph nodes in gynecological cancer or a thrombosed vessel but continue as usual in dissection and preserve any branches arising from it which is a normal variation. Also, the absent internal iliac artery is no problem as its branches may arise from the aorta or the external iliac artery. The uterine artery can be traced in this condition from the uterine side and any branches from external iliac artery in pelvis can be a normal variation.

Thyroid Hemiagenesis and Papillary Carcinoma: a Rare Association.

Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology

A 20-year-old female presented with a slowly growing solitary left thyroid nodule for 1 year. USG and CECT neck showed a 4 × 3 cm solid-cystic nodu...

Brain Oligometastasis from Synchronous Uterine Malignancies.

Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology

Synchronous tumors of female genital tract have been uncommonly reported in literature. The most likely scenario would represent a metastatic disea...