The latest medical research on Pediatric Allergy & Immunology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about pediatric allergy & immunology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Clinical Efficacy and Safety Study of Loratadine Combined with Glucocorticoid Nasal Spray in the Treatment of Pediatric Bronchial Asthma with Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis.

J Asthma

To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of Loratadine combined with Glucocorticoid nasal spray in the treatment of pediatric bronchial asth...

Patient and Clinician Preferences for Biologic Treatments for Severe Uncontrolled Asthma: A Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE).

J Asthma

To estimate the preferences of patients with asthma and asthma-treating clinicians for attributes of biologic treatments, to compare patients' and clinicians' preferences, and to better understand the reasons for their preferences.

Adults with moderate-to-severe asthma and clinicians who treat asthma in the US completed a cross-sectional, online survey including a discrete choice experiment (DCE) that consisted of seven attributes spanning treatment efficacy, risk and convenience. Marginal utilities were estimated using a mixed logit model, and relative attribute importance scores calculated. Clinicians were also asked about the value of biomarker agnostic biologic treatments. The survey was followed by qualitative interviews targeting a sub-sample of survey participants, in which the rationale behind their survey responses was discussed.

In the DCE, both patients and clinicians placed the most importance on exacerbation and hospitalization rate reduction, and risk of injection site reaction. Patients valued location of administration more than clinicians. Rationale for individual-level preferences varied, with patients and clinicians reporting their preference depended on event frequency and anticipated quality of life impacts. Clinicians mentioned compliance and financial impacts, while patients mentioned personal experience, particularly around site reactions. Most patients and clinicians would value a biomarker agnostic asthma treatment.

Asthma treatment preferences are largely driven by treatment efficacy and minimizing the risk of site reactions, although preferences differ between patients and clinicians across other attributes, highlighting the need for shared decision-making and individualized care.

Implementation of a remote behavioral intervention for older adults with asthma - a pilot study.

J Asthma

Older adults with asthma (OAA) have elevated asthma morbidity rates. A six-session intervention based on self-regulation theory was shown to improve outcomes. However wide-spread implementation was difficult due to the in-person design. Our objective was to determine the feasibility and acceptability of an updated intervention for OAA that is completely remote, includes a physician component, and utilizes shared decision making (SDM).

A pilot study of 12 OAA with uncontrolled asthma and their asthma providers was conducted at three health centers. The remote intervention (titled SOAR) consisted of 4 sessions (2 group and 2 individual). Asthma providers (both specialists and primary care) were sent updates of progress along with information on how to incorporate SDM into the visit. Implementation (feasibility, acceptability, and appropriateness) and clinical (asthma control, asthma quality of life, perceived control, depression, and self-confidence) outcomes were measured.

SOAR was found to be feasible, acceptable, and appropriate, with values on validated implementation scales similar to those of in-person behavioral interventions. Asthma providers found the program helpful and intended to change care based on the updates. Asthma control scores improved significantly from baseline (14.2 to 16.8, p = 0.04), as did asthma quality of life (4.2 to 4.9, p = 0.03) and self-confidence to manage asthma (7.1 to 8.5, p = 0.02). There was no change in depression nor perceived control scores.

A remote behavioral intervention appeared feasible and acceptable for OAA and their health care providers, and can improve outcomes. Larger scale implementation trials are warranted.

Risk Factors Associated with Asthma Control and Quality of Life in Patients with Mild Asthma Without Preventer Treatment, a Cross-Sectional Study.

Journal of Asthma and Allergy

To study risk factors for uncontrolled asthma and insufficient quality of life (QoL) in patients with mild asthma, ie those without preventer treatment.

Patients aged 18-75 years with a doctor's diagnosis of asthma randomly selected from primary and secondary care in Sweden. Mild asthma was defined as self-reported current asthma and no preventer treatment. Data were collected from self-completed questionnaires in 2012 and 2015. Well-controlled asthma was defined as Asthma Control Test (ACT) ≥20 points and no exacerbation and uncontrolled asthma as ACT<20 points and/or at least one exacerbation in the previous six months. QoL was measured by the Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (Mini-AQLQ), where a total mean score of ≥ 6 indicated sufficient and < 6 insufficient QoL. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed using asthma control and Mini-AQLQ as dependent variables. Asthma control was dichotomized as controlled and uncontrolled asthma and the Mini-AQLQ as sufficient QoL (mean score ≥6) and insufficient QoL (mean score <6).

Among 298 patients, 26% had uncontrolled asthma, 40% insufficient QoL and 20% both uncontrolled asthma and insufficient QoL. Age ≥60 years, obesity, daily smoking, rhinitis and inadequate knowledge of asthma self-management were independently associated with poor asthma control. Factors independently associated with insufficient QoL were age ≥60 years, overweight, obesity, rhinitis, sinusitis and inadequate knowledge of asthma self-management. Age ≥60 years, obesity, rhinitis and inadequate knowledge of asthma self-management were independently associated with both uncontrolled asthma and insufficient QoL.

Among asthma patients without preventer medication, 26% had uncontrolled asthma and 40% had insufficient asthma-related QoL. Older age, obesity, and rhinitis were risk factors for both poor asthma control and a reduced QoL, but having good knowledge of asthma self-management reduced this risk. Our findings suggest that this group of patients requires further attention and follow-up.

Association Between Gut and Nasal Microbiota and Allergic Rhinitis: A Systematic Review.

Journal of Asthma and Allergy

Allergic rhinitis is a chronic non-infectious inflammation of the nasal mucosa mediated by specific IgE. Recently, the human microbiome has drawn b...

IgE-Mediated Cannabis Allergy and Cross-Reactivity Syndromes: A Roadmap for Correct Diagnosis and Management.

Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

With increased access and decriminalization of cannabis use, cases of IgE-dependent cannabis allergy (CA) and cross-reactivity syndromes have been increasingly reported. However, the exact prevalence of cannabis allergy and associated cross-reactive food syndromes (CAFS) remains unknown and is likely to be underestimated due to a lack of awareness and insufficient knowledge of the subject among health care professionals. Therefore, this practical roadmap aims to familiarize the reader with the early recognition and correct management of IgE-dependent cannabis-related allergies. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying these cross-reactivity syndromes and to enable personalized diagnosis and management, special attention is given to the molecular diagnosis of cannabis-related allergies.

The predominant signs and symptoms of CA are rhinoconjunctivitis and contact urticaria/angioedema. However, CA can also present as a life-threatening condition. In addition, many patients with CA also have distinct cross-reactivity syndromes, mainly involving fruits, vegetables, nuts and cereals. At present, five allergenic components of Cannabis sativa (Can s); Can s 2 (profilin), Can s 3 (a non-specific lipid protein), Can s 4 (oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 2 oxygen), Can s 5 (the Bet v 1 homologue) and Can s 7 (thaumatin-like protein) have been characterized and indexed in the WHO International Union of Immunological Sciences (IUIS) allergen database. However, neither of them is currently readily available for diagnosis, which generally starts by testing crude extracts of native allergens. The road to a clear understanding of CA and the associated cross-reactive food syndromes (CAFS) is still long and winding, but well worth further exploration.

The Diagnosis of Allergy to Lipid Transfer Proteins.

Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

To provide an update on the diagnosis of non-specific Lipid Transfer Protein (nsLTP) allergy.

More publications report the presence of nsLTP allergy in Northern European countries and nsLTP sensitisation in children. Individuals are more likely to have severe reactions if there is recognition of increasing numbers of LTP components. Diagnosis is problematic; not all those with nsLTP allergy will have a positive test to a peach extract containing Pru p 3, the peach nsLTP. Sensitisation to nsLTP is being reported in more countries, including to the nsLTP in Cannabis Sativa in North America. Meals containing multiple nsLTP foods are more likely to be involved in co-factor reactions. Component-resolved diagnostics are superior to skin prick tests, to determine sensitisation to the individual nsLTP allergens causing symptoms and, in the future, the Basophil Activation test may best discriminate between sensitization and clinical allergy.

Legume Allergens Pea, Chickpea, Lentil, Lupine and Beyond.

Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

In the last decade, an increasing trend towards a supposedly healthier vegan diet could be observed. However, recently, more cases of allergic reactions to plants and plant-based products such as meat-substitution products, which are often prepared with legumes, were reported. Here, we provide the current knowledge on legume allergen sources and the respective single allergens. We answer the question of which legumes beside the well-known food allergen sources peanut and soybean should be considered for diagnostic and therapeutic measures.

These "non-priority" legumes, including beans, pea, lentils, chickpea, lupine, cowpea, pigeon pea, and fenugreek, are potentially new important allergen sources, causing mild-to-severe allergic reactions. Severe reactions have been described particularly for peas and lupine. An interesting aspect is the connection between anaphylactic reactions and exercise (food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis), which has only recently been highlighted for legumes such as soybean, lentils and chickpea. Most allergic reactions derive from IgE cross-reactions to homologous proteins, for example between peanut and lupine, which is of particular importance for peanut-allergic individuals ignorant to these cross-reactions. From our findings we conclude that there is a need for large-scale studies that are geographically distinctive because most studies are case reports, and geographic differences of allergic diseases towards these legumes have already been discovered for well-known "Big 9" allergen sources such as peanut and soybean. Furthermore, the review illustrates the need for a better molecular diagnostic for these emerging non-priority allergen sources to evaluate IgE cross-reactivities to known allergens and identify true allergic reactions.

SANI Clinical Remission definition: a useful tool in Severe Asthma management.

J Asthma

In the field of severe asthma, the concept of disease control has recently been integrated by the one of clinical remission. With this new concept,...

Unhealthy habits and comorbidities associated with uncontrolled asthma in young people.

J Asthma

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lower airways that affects more than 260 million people worldwide and has been related to more than 460,000 deaths a year. It is estimated that in 60% of asthma cases, the symptoms are not adequately controlled. The objective of this study was to determine the association between some comorbidities, habits, and health risk behaviors with uncontrolled asthma in a sample of young people with asthma.

Through a cross-sectional study, data from 1,078 young people aged 17 to 19 years were analyzed. Information was collected through physical examination, direct questioning, and the application of a self-administered questionnaire.

In the group of young people with asthma, the prevalence of uncontrolled asthma was 20.6%, of which 53.8% were women, 76.9% suffered from rhinitis, 46.2% were overweight and 23.1% were obese. In the group of young with uncontrolled asthma, gingivitis was detected in 53.8% and alcohol consumption in 84.6%. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between allergic rhinitis, gingivitis, carbohydrate intake, alcohol consumption, overweight, and obesity with uncontrolled asthma.

Parents and members of the health team need to identify on time the risk factors associated with uncontrolled asthma in young people with asthma to limit its development and the negative effects it generates. The results of this study should be used to strengthen programs that promote the comprehensive health of adolescents.

Neglected but Clinically Relevant Allergens in Korea.

Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

Allergy diagnostics and immunotherapeutics in Asia heavily rely on imported products from Western countries, raising concerns about the accuracy and efficacy of these products for the management of Asian allergy patients.

Recent advancements in allergen research have led to the identification and characterization of novel allergens from indigenous Korean species. While some allergens share homology with well-known allergens, others lack counterparts in imported allergen extracts. Classifying regional allergens in Asia into three categories based on their cross-reactivity with imported allergens offers valuable insights. Highly cross-reactive allergens, such as oak allergens Que m 1 from Quercus mongolica and Que ac 1 from Q. acutissima, can be effectively substituted with the imported allergens. Allergens with partial cross-reactivity, like the Asian needle ant allergen Pac c 3 (Antigen 5), permit limited diagnostic value by the currently available products. Unique allergens, including the Japanese hop allergen Hum j 6 (pectin methylesterase inhibitor) and the silkworm pupa allergen Bomb m 4 (30 kDa hemolymph lipoprotein) lack alternatives in the available product list. Greater attention is needed, particularly for species listed as ecologically invasive in Western regions. Additionally, allergens from domestic fruits and vegetables causing pollen food allergy syndrome require characterization for the development of improved diagnostics.

Food-Pollen Cross-Reactivity and its Molecular Diagnosis in China.

Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

Plant-derived foods are one of the most common causative sources of food allergy in China, with a significant relationship to pollinosis. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of this food-pollen allergy syndrome and its molecular allergen diagnosis to better understand the cross-reactive basis.

Food-pollen cross-reactivity has been mainly reported in Northern China, Artemisia pollen is the major related inhalant source, followed by tree pollen (Betula), while grass pollen plays a minor role. Pollen allergy is relatively low in Southern China, with allergies to grass pollen being more important than weed and tree pollens. Rosaceae fruits and legume seeds stand out as major related allergenic foods. Non-specific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP) has been found to be the most clinically relevant cross-reacting allergenic component, able to induce severe reactions. PR-10, profilin, defensin, chitinase, and gibberellin-regulated proteins are other important cross-reactive allergen molecules. Artemisia pollen can induce allergenic cross-reactions with a wide range of plant-derived foods in China, and spring tree pollens (Betula) are also important. nsLTP found in both pollen and plant-derived food is considered the most significant allergen in food pollen cross-reactivity. Component-resolved diagnosis with potential allergenic proteins is recommended to improve diagnostic accuracy and predict the potential risk of causing allergic symptoms.