The latest medical research on Obesity & Bariatrics

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about obesity & bariatrics gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Seventy years of bariatric surgery: A systematic mapping review of randomized controlled trials.

Obesity Reviews

While research publications on bariatric surgery (BS) have grown significantly over the past decade, there is no mapping of the existing body of ev...

Clinical and patient-centered implementation outcomes of mHealth interventions for type 2 diabetes in low-and-middle income countries: a systematic review.

International Journal of Epidemiology

PROSPERO: Registration ID 154209.

The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines were applied in framing and reporting the review criteria. A systematic search of Cochrane Library, Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Ovid databases was performed through a combination of search terms. Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) and cohort studies published in English between January 2010 and August 2021 were included. Risk of bias for missing results in the included studies was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials (RoB 2). Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to synthesize the results.

The search identified a total of 1161 articles. Thirty studies from 14 LMICs met the eligibility criteria. On clinical outcomes, 12 and 9 studies reported on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c )and fasting blood glucose (FBG) respectively. Text messages was the most commonly applied mHealth approach, used in 19 out of the 30 studies. Ten out of the 12 studies (83.3%) that reported on HbA1c had a percentage difference of <0.3% between the mHealth intervention and the comparison group. Additionally, studies with longer intervention periods had higher effect size and percentage difference on HbA1c (1.52 to 2.92%). Patient-centred implementation outcomes were reported variedly, where feasibility was reported in all studies. Acceptability was reported in nine studies, appropriateness in six studies and cost in four studies. mHealth evidence reporting and assessment (mERA) guidelines were not applied in all the studies in this review.   CONCLUSION: mHealth interventions in LMICs are associated with clinically significant effectiveness on HbA1 but have low effectiveness on FBG. The application of mERA guidelines may standardize reporting of patient-centered implementation outcomes in LMICs.

A collaborative approach to adopting/adapting guidelines. The Australian 24-hour movement guidelines for children (5-12 years) and young people (13-17 years): An integration of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep.

International Journal of Epidemiology

In 2018, the Australian Government updated the Australian Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for Children and Young People. A requirement of this update was the incorporation of a 24-hour approach to movement, recognising the importance of adequate sleep. The purpose of this paper was to describe how the updated Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Young People (5 to 17 years): an integration of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep were developed and the outcomes from this process.

The GRADE-ADOLOPMENT approach was used to develop the guidelines. A Leadership Group was formed, who identified existing credible guidelines. The Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth best met the criteria established by the Leadership Group. These guidelines were evaluated based on the evidence in the GRADE tables, summaries of findings tables and recommendations from the Canadian Guidelines. We conducted updates to each of the Canadian systematic reviews. A Guideline Development Group reviewed, separately and in combination, the evidence for each behaviour. A choice was then made to adopt or adapt the Canadian recommendations for each behaviour or create de novo recommendations. We then conducted an online survey (n=237) along with three focus groups (n=11 in total) and 13 key informant interviews. Stakeholders used these to provide feedback on the draft guidelines.

Based on the evidence from the Canadian systematic reviews and the updated systematic reviews in Australia, the Guideline Development Group agreed to adopt the Canadian recommendations and, apart from some minor changes to the wording of good practice statements, maintain the wording of the guidelines, preamble, and title of the Canadian Guidelines. The Australian Guidelines provide evidence-informed recommendations for a healthy day (24-hours), integrating physical activity, sedentary behaviour (including limits to screen time), and sleep for children (5-12 years) and young people (13-17 years).

To our knowledge, this is only the second time the GRADE-ADOLOPMENT approach has been used to develop movement behaviour guidelines. The judgments of the Australian Guideline Development Group did not differ sufficiently to change the directions and strength of the recommendations and as such, the Canadian Guidelines were adopted with only very minor alterations. This allowed the Australian Guidelines to be developed in a shorter time frame and at a lower cost. We recommend the GRADE-ADOLOPMENT approach, especially if a credible set of guidelines that was developed using the GRADE approach is available with all supporting materials. Other countries may consider this approach when developing and/or revising national movement guidelines.

Importance of characterising sleep breaks within the 24-h movement behaviour framework.

International Journal of Epidemiology

Accelerometers measure the acceleration of the body part they are attached and allow to estimate time spent in activity levels (sedentary behaviour...

Using adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells to fight the metabolic complications of obesity: Where do we stand?

Obesity Reviews

Obesity is a critical risk factor for the development of metabolic diseases, and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. Stem cell-based therapies ...

Sex differences in regional adipose tissue depots pose different threats for the development of Type 2 diabetes in males and females.

Obesity Reviews

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects males and females disproportionately. In midlife, more males have T2DM than females. The sex difference in ...

The nutrition transition, food retail transformations, and policy responses to overnutrition in the East Asia region: A descriptive review.

Obesity Reviews

The East Asia region is facing an increasing burden of overweight, obesity and related noncommunicable diseases, resulting from an ongoing nutrition transition. This study aimed to document the growing burden of overweight and obesity, and the accompanying dietary shifts, in the East Asia region and describe the policy responses to this.

We present noncommunicable disease risk factor collaboration data on trends in the burden of malnutrition, and Euromonitor International data on trends in dietary purchases, in the East Asia region. We searched the NOURISHING and GINA databases to identify food and nutrition policies implemented in these countries.

There is an ongoing nutrition transition in the East Asia region, notably in upper-middle and lower-middle income countries. The prevalence of overweight, obesity, and accompanying health conditions, purchases of ultra-processed foods and beverages, and purchasing from supermarkets, fast-food and takeaway outlets, and other convenience retailers, are increasing. The policy response to this nutrition transition is limited, with the majority of policies implemented in higher-income countries.

East Asian countries are facing a growing burden of malnutrition, due in part to the dietary shifts occurring here. An ecological approach to policy intervention is needed to drive transformative food systems change.

Human microbiome and metabolic health: An overview of systematic reviews.

Obesity Reviews

To summarize the microbiome's role in metabolic disorders (insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, type 2 diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertensio...

Multigenerational transmission of obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Obesity Reviews

There is a strong link between parental and offspring obesity status. However, the state of epidemiological evidence on multigenerational transmiss...

The Home Environment Interview and associations with energy balance behaviours and body weight in school-aged children - a feasibility, reliability, and validity study.

International Journal of Epidemiology

The home environment is thought to influence children's weight trajectories. However, few studies utilise composite measures of the home environment to examine associations with energy balance behaviours and weight. The present study aimed to adapt and update a comprehensive measure of the obesogenic home environment previously developed for pre-schoolers, and explore associations with school-aged children's energy balance behaviours and weight.

Families from the Gemini cohort (n = 149) completed the Home Environment Interview (HEI) via telephone when their children were 12 years old. The HEI comprises four composite scores: one for each domain (food, activity and media) of the environment, as well as a score for the overall obesogenic home environment. The primary caregiver also reported each child's height and weight (using standard scales and height charts), diet, physical activity and sedentary screen-based behaviours. A test-retest sample (n = 20) of caregivers completed the HEI a second time, 7-14 days after the initial interview, to establish test-retest reliability.

Children (n = 298) living in 'higher-risk' home environments (a 1 unit increase in the HEI obesogenic risk score) were less likely to consume fruits (OR; 95% CI = 0.40; 0.26-0.61, p < 0.001), and vegetables (0.30; 0.18-0.52, p < 0.001), and more likely to consume energy-dense snack foods (1.71; 1.08-2.69, p = 0.022), convenience foods (2.58; 1.64-4.05, p < 0.001), and fast foods (3.09; 1.90-5.04, p < 0.001). Children living in more obesogenic home environments also engaged in more screen-time (β (SE) = 4.55 (0.78), p < 0.001), spent more time playing video games (β (SE) = 1.56 (0.43), p < 0.001), and were less physically active (OR; 95% CI = 0.57; 0.40-0.80, p < 0.01). Additionally, there was a positive association between higher-risk overall home environment composite score and higher BMI-SDS (β (SE) = 0.23 (0.09), p < 0.01). This finding was mirrored for the home media composite (β (SE) = 0.12 (0.03), p < 0.001). The individual home food and activity composite scores were not associated with BMI-SDS.

Findings reveal associations between the overall obesogenic home environment and dietary intake, activity levels and screen-based sedentary behaviours, as well as BMI in 12 year olds. These findings suggest that the home environment, and in particular the home media environment, may be an important target for obesity prevention strategies.

Contributions of changes in physical activity, sedentary time, diet and body weight to changes in cardiometabolic risk.

International Journal of Epidemiology

International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials, ISRCTN-81935608. Registered 06052015.

This is a secondary analysis of data collected from the EuroFIT randomised controlled trial, which was a 12-week group-based lifestyle intervention for overweight middle-aged men delivered by coaches in football club stadia aiming to improve PA, SED, diet, and body weight. PA and SED were assessed by accelerometry, diet using the Dietary Instrument for Nutrition Education (DINE). An overall cardiometabolic risk score was derived from combining z-scores for glucose, HbA1c, insulin, lipids and blood pressure. In total, 707 men (from the overall cohort of 1113) with complete data for these variables at baseline and 12-month follow-up were included in the multivariable linear regression analyses.

In multivariable analyses, change in number of steps (explaining 5.1% of R2) and dietary factors (less alcohol, fatty and sugary food, and more fruit and vegetables) (together explaining 4.5% of R2), but not changes in standing time or SED, were significantly associated with change in body weight. Changes in number of steps (R2 = 1.7%), fatty food score (R2 = 2.4%), and sugary food score (R2 = 0.4%) were significantly associated with change in cardiometabolic risk score in univariable models. However, in multivariable models which included changes in weight as well as changes in steps and dietary variables, change in weight explained a substantially larger proportion of the change in cardiometabolic risk score, explaining 14.1% of R2 (out of an overall model R2 of 19.0%). When baseline (as well as change) values were also included in the model, 38.8% of R2 for change in cardiometabolic risk score was explained overall, with 14.1% of R2 still explained by change in weight.

Change in body weight, together with baseline cardiometabolic risk explained most of the change in cardiometabolic risk. Thus, the benefits of increasing physical activity and improving diet on cardiometabolic risk appear to act largely via an effect on changes in body weight.

mHealth interventions targeting movement behaviors in Asia: A scoping review.

Obesity Reviews

mHealth interventions can promote healthy movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep). However, recent reviews include fe...