The latest medical research on Obesity & Bariatrics

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about obesity & bariatrics gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Prevalence and associated factors of secondary hyperparathyroidism after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: A meta-analysis.

Obesity Reviews

This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYG...

Play, Learn, and Teach Outdoors-Network (PLaTO-Net): terminology, taxonomy, and ontology.

International Journal of Epidemiology

A recent dialogue in the field of play, learn, and teach outdoors (referred to as "PLaTO" hereafter) demonstrated the need for developing harmonized and consensus-based terminology, taxonomy, and ontology for PLaTO. This is important as the field evolves and diversifies in its approaches, contents, and contexts over time and in different countries, cultures, and settings. Within this paper, we report the systematic and iterative processes undertaken to achieve this objective, which has built on the creation of the global PLaTO-Network (PLaTO-Net).

This project comprised of four major methodological phases. First, a systematic scoping review was conducted to identify common terms and definitions used pertaining to PLaTO. Second, based on the results of the scoping review, a draft set of key terms, taxonomy, and ontology were developed, and shared with PLaTO members, who provided feedback via four rounds of consultation. Third, PLaTO terminology, taxonomy, and ontology were then finalized based on the feedback received from 50 international PLaTO member participants who responded to ≥ 3 rounds of the consultation survey and dialogue. Finally, efforts to share and disseminate project outcomes were made through different online platforms.

This paper presents the final definitions and taxonomy of 31 PLaTO terms along with the PLaTO-Net ontology model. The model incorporates other relevant concepts in recognition that all the aspects of the model are interrelated and interconnected. The final terminology, taxonomy, and ontology are intended to be applicable to, and relevant for, all people encompassing various identities (e.g., age, gender, culture, ethnicity, ability).

This project contributes to advancing PLaTO-based research and facilitating intersectoral and interdisciplinary collaboration, with the long-term goal of fostering and strengthening PLaTO's synergistic linkages with healthy living, environmental stewardship, climate action, and planetary health agendas. Notably, PLaTO terminology, taxonomy and ontology will continue to evolve, and PLaTO-Net is committed to advancing and periodically updating harmonized knowledge and understanding in the vast and interrelated areas of PLaTO.

The effect of temperature on physical activity: an aggregated timeseries analysis of smartphone users in five major Chinese cities.

International Journal of Epidemiology

Physical activity is an important factor in premature mortality reduction, non-communicable disease prevention, and well-being protection. Climate change will alter temperatures globally, with impacts already found on mortality and morbidity. While uncomfortable temperature is often perceived as a barrier to physical activity, the actual impact of temperature on physical activity has been less well studied, particularly in China. This study examined the associations between temperature and objectively measured physical activity among adult populations in five major Chinese cities.

Aggregated anonymized step count data was obtained between December 2017-2018 for five major Chinese cities: Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, Shenzhen, and Hong Kong. The associations of temperature with daily aggregated mean step count were assessed using Generalized Additive Models (GAMs), adjusted for meteorological, air pollution, and time-related variables.

Significant decreases in step counts during periods of high temperatures were found for cold or temperate climate cities (Beijing, Shanghai, and Chongqing), with maximum physical activity occurring between 16 and 19.3 °C. High temperatures were associated with decreases of 800-1500 daily steps compared to optimal temperatures. For cities in subtropical climates (Shenzhen and Hong Kong), non-significant declines were found with high temperatures. Overall, females and the elderly demonstrated lower optimal temperatures for physical activity and larger decreases of step count in warmer temperatures.

As minor reductions in physical activity could consequentially affect health, an increased awareness of temperature's impact on physical activity is necessary. City-wide adaptations and physical activity interventions should seek ways to sustain physical activity levels in the face of shifting temperatures from climate change.

Correlates of sedentary behavior in Asian preschool-aged children: A systematic review.

Obesity Reviews

This systematic review aims to identify the multilevel correlates of sedentary behavior (SB) and its sub-domains among preschool-aged children aged...

Evaluation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in severe obesity using noninvasive tests and imaging techniques.

Obesity Reviews

The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the more severe and inflammatory type, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is incre...

Exercise and bariatric surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the feasibility and acceptability of exercise and controlled trial methods.

Obesity Reviews

This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the feasibility and acceptability of exercise and controlled trial methods in adults awaiting or ...

Trajectories of physical activity and sedentary time in Norwegian children aged 3-9 years: a 5-year longitudinal study.

International Journal of Epidemiology

Limited evidence exists regarding the longitudinal development of physical activity during early to mid childhood. The aim of this study was to determine physical activity and sedentary time trajectories in children aged 3‒9 years from Western Norway.

A sample of 294 children (51% boys; aged 3‒5 years at baseline) from the Sogn og Fjordane Preschool Physical Activity Study was followed annually over 5 years (2015‒2019). Physical activity was measured every autumn during this period using hip-based accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X+). Data was processed as counts. We used linear mixed models to analyse the data. Primary analyses included trajectories for total and intensity-specific physical activity (light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate to vigorous intensity) and sedentary time for boys and girls using 1-s epoch. Secondary analyses included trajectories for weekdays versus weekend days, preschool/school hours versus after school hours, and 1- versus 60-s epoch lengths.

Over the total day, significant associations with age were found for boys and girls for all physical activity intensities and sedentary time (p < .001). Total physical activity peaked at age 5, whereas intensity-specific physical activity levels peaked at age 3 to 8 years (light intensity: 3-4 years; moderate intensity: 4-7 years; vigorous intensity: 7-8 years; moderate to vigorous intensity: 5-8 years). Boys had higher physical activity levels and more favourable trajectories than girls. Sedentary time increased from ages 3 to 9. Changes over time were larger for weekdays than for weekend days and larger for preschool/school hours than for after school hours. The use of a 60-s epoch resulted in larger changes over time than a 1-s epoch.

Our findings suggest physical activity levels peaked between the ages of 3 and 8 years. Finding ways to prevent decline in physical activity during the transition from preschool to primary school is important, especially for girls. Standardising epoch length will help when comparing physical activity and sedentary behaviour across studies.

Nutritional strategies to attenuate postprandial glycemic response.

Obesity Reviews

Maintaining good glycemic control to prevent complications is crucial in people with type 2 diabetes and in people with prediabetes and in the gene...

The effectiveness of technology-based interventions for weight loss maintenance: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials with meta-analysis.

Obesity Reviews

To systematically review and meta-analyze randomized controlled trials on the effects of technology-based interventions for maintenance of lost weight.

A systematic literature search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials with at least one intervention arm delivered through the internet or mobile application, published in English until September 2021. Weight change at the end of the weight loss maintenance phase was considered the primary outcome.

Twelve manuscripts with 2941 adults were included in the review; 10 studies were meta-analyzed. Included interventions had a duration of 3-30 months and were tested compared with minimum interventions (no contact with the study staff or intervention with only a limited number of features) or in-person groups. Technology-based interventions resulted in similar weight regain when compared with minimum interventions (ES = -0.07 kg; 95% CI = [-0.57, 0.42]; p = 0.770). However, when compared with in-person interventions, technology-based interventions were found to lead in significantly higher weight regain (ES = 1.36 kg; 95% CI = [0.29, 2.43]; p = 0.010).

Web- and app-based interventions for weight loss maintenance produced similar results with minimum interventions and resulted in greater weight regain compared with in-person interventions. Appropriate interventions for weight loss maintenance provide benefits against weight regain, only when provided in-person.

A pragmatic multi-setting lifestyle intervention to improve leisure-time physical activity from adolescence to young adulthood: the vital role of sex and intervention onset time.

International Journal of Epidemiology

This study is registered at Iran Registry for Clinical Trials (IRCT), a WHO primary registry ( http://irct.ir ). The TLGS clinical trial was the very first registration in the IRCT (Iran Registry of Clinical Trials). it was registered on 2008-10-29 by the registration number IRCT138705301058N1 . Based on the international committee of medical journal Editors (ICMJE), "retrospective registration" is acceptable for trials that began before July 1, 2005.

Participants were 2374 adolescents (57.2% girls), aged 12-18 years, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) during 1999-2001 and followed for a median follow-up of 15.9 over five data points every 3 years. Adolescent participants were assigned to the intervention or control groups based on their residential areas. Boys and girls were categorized into 12-15 or 16-18 years old to minimize participants' bio-psychological differences, facilitate environmental interventions by more compliance with the Iranian educational system and identify the best time to start the intervention. All adolescents in the intervention area received healthy lifestyle interventions via the school-, family-, and community-based programs. LTPA was assessed using the reliable and validated Iranian Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (MAQ) version over the five data points. The Generalized Estimating Equations method was used to evaluate educational intervention's effect on LTPA in adolescents during the follow-up.

In boys who experienced the early onset of intervention (12-15 years), the interaction effect of follow-up examinations and the intervention was significant where the impact of the intervention differed over time. In this group, LTPA was higher in the control group than in the intervention group at the first follow-up examination (β = - 1088.54). However, an increasing trend of LTPA was observed in the intervention group until the third follow-up examination (β = 1278.21, p = 0.08, and β = 1962.81, p = 0.02, respectively), with borderline significance levels at the 2nd (P = 0.08) and the 4th (P = 0.08) measurements. The interaction terms and main effects of intervention and follow-up examinations were not significant in boys with late intervention onset. Although older boys in the intervention group had higher LTPA than the control group, there were no significant differences among study groups in all follow-up examinations. Regarding girls, LTPA did not differ significantly between intervention and control groups in all follow-up examinations (P > 0.05).

Our results showed that a multi-setting practical lifestyle intervention could improve long-term energy expenditure in LTPA in adolescent boys who have experienced an early onset intervention. Findings emphasized the vital role of gender and the onset of these interventions. The current results would be valuable to plan tailored interventions to improve LTPA and community health.

A mixed methods study of siblings' roles in maternal feeding practices in early childhood: an application of the learning from experience process.

International Journal of Epidemiology

Firstborn children have higher rates of obesity compared to secondborns, perhaps due, in part, to differential feeding practices. Despite the centrality of siblings in family life and potential for influence, almost nothing is known about the role of siblings in parent feeding practices in early childhood.

Participants (n = 117) were mothers of consecutively born siblings. Firstborns participated in an RCT that compared a responsive parenting intervention designed for primary prevention of obesity against a safety control. Secondborns participated in an observational cohort. Multilevel models tested whether and how firstborn characteristics (temperament, appetite, rapid weight gain) at 16 weeks and 1 year were associated maternal feeding practices of secondborns in infancy at 16 weeks, 28 weeks, and 1 year (food to soothe) and at ages 1, 2, and 3 years (structure-and control-based feeding practices). A purposive subsample (n = 30) of mothers also participated in semi-structured interviews to further illuminate potential sibling influences on maternal feeding practices during infancy and toddlerhood.

Firstborn characteristics did not predict secondborn feeding in infancy (all ps > 0.05). Firstborn negative affect, however, predicted mothers' less consistent mealtime routines (b (SE) = - 0.27 (0.09); p = 0.005) and more pressure (b (SE) = 0.38 (0.12); p = 0.001). Firstborn appetite predicted mothers' less frequent use of food to soothe (b (SE) = - 0.16 (0.07); p = 0.02) when secondborns were toddlers. Firstborn surgency, regulation, and rapid weight gain, however, did not predict secondborn feeding practices during toddlerhood (all ps > 0.05). Interviews with mothers revealed three ways that maternal experiences with firstborns informed feeding practices of secondborns: 1) Use of feeding practices with secondborn that worked for the firstborn; 2) Confidence came from firstborn feeding experiences making secondborn feeding less anxiety-provoking; and 3) Additional experiences with firstborn and other factors that contributed to secondborn feeding practices.

Some firstborn characteristics and maternal experiences with firstborns as well as maternal psychosocial factors may have implications for mothers' feeding practices with secondborns. Together, these mixed methods findings may inform future research and family-based interventions focused on maternal feeding of siblings in early childhood.

Co-creation of healthier food retail environments: A systematic review to explore the type of stakeholders and their motivations and stage of engagement.

Obesity Reviews

To synthesize peer-reviewed literature that utilize co-creation principles in healthy food retail initiatives.

Systematic review of six databases from inception to September 2021. Screening and quality assessment were carried out by two authors independently. Studies were included if they were conducted in food retail stores, used a collaborative model, and aimed to improve the healthiness of the food retail environment. Studies excluded were implemented in restaurants, fast food chains, or similar or did not utilize some form of collaboration. Extracted data included the type of stakeholders engaged, level of engagement, stakeholder motivation, and barriers and enablers of the co-creation process.

After screening 6951 articles by title and abstract, 131 by full text, 23 manuscripts that describe 20 separate studies from six countries were included. Six were implemented in low-income communities and eight among Indigenous people groups. A common aim was to increase access to, and availability of, healthy products. A diverse range of co-creation approaches, theoretical perspectives, and study designs were observed. The three most common stakeholders involved were researchers, corporate representatives or store owners, and governments.

Some evidence exists of the benefits of co-creation to improve the healthiness of food retail environments. The field may benefit from structured guidance on the theory and practice of co-creation.