The latest medical research on Obesity & Bariatrics

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about obesity & bariatrics gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Physical activity and academic achievement: an analysis of potential student- and school-level moderators.

International Journal of Epidemiology

This study was registered with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) system, with ID NCT03765047 . Registered 05 December 2018-Retrospectively registered.

In a large, diverse metropolitan public school district in Georgia, 4,936 students in Grade 4 were recruited from 40 elementary schools. Students wore accelerometers to measure school-day MVPA for a total of 15 days across three semesters (fall 2018, spring 2019, fall 2019). Academic achievement data, including course marks (grades) for math, reading, spelling, and standardized test scores in writing, math, reading, and Lexile (reading assessment), were collected at baseline (Grade 3, ages 8-9) and at follow-up in Grade 4 (ages 9-10). Standardized test scores were not measured in Grade 5 (ages 10-11) due to COVID-19-related disruptions. Multilevel modeling assessed whether student-level and/or school-level characteristics were moderators in the cross-sectional and longitudinal MVPA-academic achievement relationship.

Cross sectional analyses indicated that the MVPA and AA relationship was moderated only by student Hispanic ethnicity for Grade 4 fall spelling marks (β = -0.159 p < 0.001). The relationship for Grade 4 fall spelling marks was also moderated by school physical activity opportunities (β = -0.128 (p < 0.001). Longitudinally, there was no significant moderation of the MVPA-academic achievement. A relationship by student gender, free/reduced-price lunch status, race/ethnicity; nor for school-level factors including proportion of students qualifying for free/reduced-price lunch, physical activity environment, and physical activity opportunities.

Overall, our results did not suggest that student- or school-level characteristics moderate the MVPA-academic achievement relationship. While statistically significant results were observed for certain outcomes, practical differences were negligible. In this population, school-based MVPA does not appear to differently affect academic performance based on student gender, race/ethnicity, free/reduced-price lunch, nor school characteristics.

Economic evaluation of physical activity mass media campaigns across the globe: a systematic review.

International Journal of Epidemiology

A search for economic evaluations (trial- or model-based) and costing studies of physical activity mass media campaigns was performed in six electronic databases (June/2021). The authors reviewed studies independently. A GRADE style rating was used to assess the overall certainty of each modelled economic evaluation. Results were summarised via narrative synthesis.

Twenty-five studies (five model-based economic evaluations and 20 costing studies) were included, and all were conducted in high-income countries except for one costing study that was conducted in a middle-income country. The methods and assumptions used in the model-based analyses were highly heterogeneous and the results varied, ranging from the intervention being more effective and less costly (dominant) in two models to an incremental cost of US$130,740 (2020 base year) per QALY gained. The level of certainty of the models ranged from very low (n = 2) to low (n = 3). Overall, intervention costs were poorly reported.

There are few economic evaluations of physical activity mass media campaigns available. The level of certainty of the models was judged to be very low to low, indicating that we have very little to little confidence that the results are reliable for decision making. Therefore, it remains unclear to what extent physical activity mass media campaigns offer good value for money. Future economic evaluations should consider selecting appropriate and comprehensive measures of campaign effectiveness, clearly report the assumptions of the models and fully explore the impact of assumptions in the results.

Location-specific psychosocial and environmental correlates of physical activity and sedentary time in young adolescents: preliminary evidence for location-specific approaches from a cross-sectional observational study.

International Journal of Epidemiology

A better understanding of the extent to which psychosocial and environmental correlates of physical activity are specific to locations would inform intervention optimization.

To investigate cross-sectional associations of location-general and location-specific variables with physical activity and sedentary time in three common locations adolescents spend time.

Adolescents (N = 472,Mage = 14.1,SD = 1.5) wore an accelerometer and global positioning systems (GPS) tracker and self-reported on psychosocial (e.g., self-efficacy) and environmental (e.g., equipment) factors relevant to physical activity and sedentary time. We categorized each survey item based on whether it was specific to a location to generate psychosocial and environmental indices that were location-general or specific to either school, non-school, or home location. Physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time were based on time/location match to home, school, or all "other" locations. Mixed-effects models investigated the relation of each index with location-specific activity.

The location-general and non-school physical activity psychosocial indices were related to greater MVPA at school and "other" locations. The school physical activity environment index was related to greater MVPA and less sedentary time at school. The home activity environment index was related to greater MVPA at home. The non-school sedentary psychosocial index was related to less sedentary time at home. Interactions among indices revealed adolescents with low support on one index benefited (i.e., exhibited more optimal behavior) from high support on another index (e.g., higher scores on the location-general PA psychosocial index moderated lower scores on the home PA environment index). Concurrent high support on two indices did not provide additional benefit.

No psychosocial or environment indices, including location-general indices, were related to activity in all locations. Most of the location-specific indices were associated with activity in the matching location(s). These findings provide preliminary evidence that psychosocial and environmental correlates of activity are location specific. Future studies should further develop location-specific measures and evaluate these constructs and whether interventions may be optimized by targeting location-specific psychosocial and environmental variables across multiple locations.

CHAP-child: an open source method for estimating sit-to-stand transitions and sedentary bout patterns from hip accelerometers among children.

International Journal of Epidemiology

Hip-worn accelerometer cut-points have poor validity for assessing children's sedentary time, which may partly explain the equivocal health associations shown in prior research. Improved processing/classification methods for these monitors would enrich the evidence base and inform the development of more effective public health guidelines. The present study aimed to develop and evaluate a novel computational method (CHAP-child) for classifying sedentary time from hip-worn accelerometer data.

Participants were 278, 8-11-year-olds recruited from nine primary schools in Melbourne, Australia with differing socioeconomic status. Participants concurrently wore a thigh-worn activPAL (ground truth) and hip-worn ActiGraph (test measure) during up to 4 seasonal assessment periods, each lasting up to 8 days. activPAL data were used to train and evaluate the CHAP-child deep learning model to classify each 10-s epoch of raw ActiGraph acceleration data as sitting or non-sitting, creating comparable information from the two monitors. CHAP-child was evaluated alongside the current practice 100 counts per minute (cpm) method for hip-worn ActiGraph monitors. Performance was tested for each 10-s epoch and for participant-season level sedentary time and bout variables (e.g., mean bout duration).

Across participant-seasons, CHAP-child correctly classified each epoch as sitting or non-sitting relative to activPAL, with mean balanced accuracy of 87.6% (SD = 5.3%). Sit-to-stand transitions were correctly classified with mean sensitivity of 76.3% (SD = 8.3). For most participant-season level variables, CHAP-child estimates were within ± 11% (mean absolute percent error [MAPE]) of activPAL, and correlations between CHAP-child and activPAL were generally very large (> 0.80). For the current practice 100 cpm method, most MAPEs were greater than ± 30% and most correlations were small or moderate (≤ 0.60) relative to activPAL.

There was strong support for the concurrent validity of the CHAP-child classification method, which allows researchers to derive activPAL-equivalent measures of sedentary time, sit-to-stand transitions, and sedentary bout patterns from hip-worn triaxial ActiGraph data. Applying CHAP-child to existing datasets may provide greater insights into the potential impacts and influences of sedentary time in children.

Optimising a multi-strategy implementation intervention to improve the delivery of a school physical activity policy at scale: findings from a randomised noninferiority trial.

International Journal of Epidemiology

Retrospectively registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12619001229167).

A noninferiority cluster randomised controlled trial was undertaken with 48 primary schools in New South Wales, Australia. Schools were randomised to receive PACE or a model with adaptations made to the delivery modes (Adapted PACE). Teachers' scheduled minutes of weekly physical activity was assessed at baseline (Oct 2018-Feb 2019) and 12-month follow-up (Oct-Dec 2019). The noninferiority margin was set at - 16.4 minutes based on previous data and decision panel consensus. A linear mixed model analysed within a Bayesian framework was used to explore noninferiority between the two PACE models. A cost minimisation analysis was conducted from the health service provider perspective, using the Australian dollar (AUD).

The posterior estimate for the between group difference at follow-up was - 2.3 minutes (95% credible interval = - 18.02, 14.45 minutes). There was an estimated 96% probability of Adapted PACE being considered noninferior (only 4% of the posterior samples crossed the noninferiority margin of - 16.4 minutes). That is, the minutes of physical activity implemented by teachers at Adapted PACE schools was not meaningfully less than the minutes of physical activity implemented by teachers at PACE schools. The mean total cost was AUD$25,375 (95% uncertainty interval = $21,499, $29,106) for PACE and AUD$16,421 (95% uncertainty interval = $13,974, $19,656) for Adapted PACE; an estimated reduction of AUD$373 (95% uncertainty interval = $173, $560) per school.

It is highly probable that Adapted PACE is noninferior to the original model. It is a cost-efficient alternative also likely to be a more suitable approach to supporting large scale implementation of school physical activity policies.

Sociodemographic and behavioural factors of adherence to the no-screen guideline for toddlers among parents from the French nationwide Elfe birth cohort.

International Journal of Epidemiology

Excessive screen time in infancy and childhood has been associated with consequences on children's development and health. International guidelines call for no screen time before age 2 years, whereas in France, the most prominent guidelines recommend no screen before age 3 years. However, data are lacking on parental adherence to the no-screen guideline for toddlers and factors of adherence in France. Using data from the French nationwide Elfe birth cohort, we estimated adherence to the no-screen guideline at age 2 years and examined related factors, including sociodemographic characteristics, parental leisure activities and screen time.

In 2011, 18,329 newborns and their parents were enrolled in 349 randomly selected maternity units across mainland France. At age 2 years, screen exposure of 13,117 toddlers was reported by parents in phone interviews. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, parental leisure activities and screen time were collected from both parents. Three patterns of parental leisure activities were derived by principal component analysis: literate (e.g.,reading), screen-based, and physical/artistic activities. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the associations of sociodemographic characteristics, parental leisure activities and parental screen time with adherence to the no-screen guideline for toddlers.

Overall, 1809/13,117 (13.5%) families adhered to the no-screen guideline for toddlers. Adherence was reduced with maternal age < 40 years, low parental education, single-parent household and parental migration status. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, adherence to the guideline was positively associated with a parental literate activity pattern (mothers: odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.15 [1.08, 1.22]); fathers: 1.15 [1.07, 1.23]) and negatively with a screen-based activity pattern (mothers: 0.73 [0.69, 0.77]; fathers: 0.81 [0.76, 0.87]). With each additional hour of parental screen time, mothers and fathers were less likely to adhere to the guideline (mothers: adjusted odds ratio 0.80 [0.77, 0.83]; fathers: 0.88 [0.85, 0.91]).

Adherence to the no-screen guideline for toddlers in France was low. Parental leisure activities and parental screen time are major factors of adherence to the no-screen guideline and could be considered in targeted public health interventions.

Effects of behavioral performance, intrinsic reward value, and context stability on the formation of a higher-order nutrition habit: an intensive longitudinal diary study.

International Journal of Epidemiology . Registered 28.04.2020.

Participants were recruited via mailing lists and posts on social media platforms. N = 199 participants (Mage = 37.10 years, SD = 13.00, 86.93% female) received an online intervention for building the higher-order habit of filling half of their plates with vegetables at dinner and completed one daily online survey for up to 56 days, including the assessment of habit strength, behavioral performance, intrinsic reward value, and context stability, providing a total of N = 6352 daily measurements. N = 189 participants (N = 4175 measurements) could be included in the primary analysis. Utilizing multilevel modeling, we analyzed the impact of behavioral performance, intrinsic reward value, and context stability, as well as their interaction effects, on habit strength on the next day.

Habit strength significantly increased over time. This effect was strengthened in persons with high mean levels of behavioral performance. Furthermore, mean levels of behavioral performance, intrinsic reward value, and context stability were all positively related to mean levels of habit strength. There were no positive effects of daily intraindividual variations in the three examined factors on habit strength at the next day. There was an unexpected negative effect of daily behavioral performance on habit strength at the next day. We found little to no evidence for our expected and pre-registered interaction effects. In an additional exploratory analysis, there were positive effects of daily intraindividual variations in the three factors on habit strength at the same day.

We found that behavioral performance, intrinsic reward value, and context stability were all independent predictors of habit strength of a higher-order habit at the between-person level. However, we did not find the expected associations at the within-person level. Habit interventions should promote the consistent performance of the target behaviors in stable contexts.

Association of physical activity with utilization of long-term care in community-dwelling older adults in Germany: results from the population-based KORA-Age observational study.

International Journal of Epidemiology

Physical activity (PA) is a proven strategy to prevent chronic diseases and reduce falls. Furthermore, it improves or at least maintains performance of activities of daily living, and thus fosters an independent lifestyle in older adults. However, evidence on the association of PA with relevant subgroups, such as older adults with utilization of long-term care (LTC), is sparse. This knowledge would be essential for establishing effective, need-based strategies to minimize the burden on healthcare systems due to the increasing need for LTC in old age.

Data originate from the 2011/12 (t1) baseline assessment and 2016 (t2) follow-up of the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA-)Age study in southern Germany. In 4812 observations of individuals ≥65 years, the association between various types of PA (walking, exercise (i. e., subcategory of PA with the objective to improve or maintain one or more components of physical fitness), walking+exercise) and utilization of LTC (yes/no) was analyzed using generalized estimating equation logistic models. Corresponding models stratified by sex (females: 2499 observations; males: 2313 observations) examined sex-specific associations. Descriptive analyses assessed the proportion of individuals meeting the suggested minimum values in the German National Physical Activity Recommendations for older adults (GNPAR).

All types of PA showed a statistically significant association with non-utilization of LTC in the entire cohort. "Walking+exercise" had the strongest association with non-utilization of LTC in the entire cohort (odds ratio (OR): 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.39-0.70) and in males (OR: 0.41, CI: 0.26-0.65), whereas in females it was "exercise" (OR: 0.58; CI: 0.35-0.94). The proportion of individuals meeting the GNPAR was higher among those without utilization of LTC (32.7%) than among those with LTC (11.7%) and group differences were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05).

The GNPAR are rarely met by older adults. However, doing any type of PA is associated with non-utilization of LTC in community-dwelling older adults. Therefore, older adults should be encouraged to walk or exercise regularly. Furthermore, future PA programs should consider target-groups' particularities to reach individuals with the highest needs for support.

Impulsivity is longitudinally associated with healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns in individuals with overweight or obesity and metabolic syndrome within the framework of the PREDIMED-Plus trial.

International Journal of Epidemiology

ISRCTN 89,898,870. Date of registration: 05/28/2014.

A 3-year prospective cohort analysis within the PREDIMED-Plus-Cognition study conducted in 4 PREDIMED-Plus study centers was performed. The PREDIMED-Plus study aimed to test the beneficial effect of a lifestyle intervention on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The participants with overweight or obesity and metabolic syndrome included in the present study (n = 462; mean age of 65.3 years; 51.5% female) completed both the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (range: 0-236 points) and the 143-item Food Frequency Questionnaire at baseline, 1-year and 3-years of follow-up. Ten diet scores assessing healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns were evaluated. Linear mixed models were performed adjusting by several confounders to study the longitudinal associations between impulsivity trait and adherence to dietary pattern scores over 3 years of follow-up (also assessing interactions by sex, age, and intervention group).

Impulsivity were negatively associated with adherence to the Healthy Plant-Based [β = -0.92 (95%CI -1.67, -0.16)], Mediterranean [β = -0.43 (95%CI -0.79, -0.07)], Energy-Restricted Mediterranean [β = -0.76 (95%CI -1.16, -0.37)], Alternative Healthy Eating Index [β = -0.88 (95%CI -1.52, -0.23)], Portfolio [β = -0.57 (95%CI -0.91, -0.22)], and DASH [β = -0.50 (95%CI -0.79, -0.22)] diet scores over 3 years of follow-up, whereas impulsivity was positively related with adherence to the unhealthy Western diet [β = 1.59 (95%CI 0.59, 2.58)] over time. An interaction by intervention group was found, with those participants in the intervention group with high impulsivity levels having lower adherence to several healthy dietary patterns.

Heightened impulsivity was longitudinally associated with lower adherence to healthy dietary patterns and higher adherence to the Western diet over 3 years of follow-up. Furthermore, nutritional intervention programs should consider impulsivity as a relevant factor for the intervention success.

Effective strategies in ending weight stigma in healthcare.

Obesity Reviews

Weight stigma impacts negatively healthcare quality and hinders public health goals. The aim of this review was to identify strategies for minimizi...

Evaluation of pre-Games effects of the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games on Japanese population-level physical activity: a time-series analysis.

International Journal of Epidemiology

The Olympic Games represent an opportunity to create a 'physical activity legacy' that promotes physical activity at the population level in the host nations and cities. However, previous studies showed little increase in population-level physical activity following the Olympics. The upsurge of public interest in sports and physical activity participation before the Olympics may diminish rapidly following the Games. We examined the pre-Games effects of the Olympics on Japanese population-level physical activity after the announcement of Tokyo's successful bid for the 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games in September 2013.

We used publicly available data from serial cross-sectional surveys conducted with nationally or regionally representative samples in Japan seven years before and after the announcement (from 2006-2020). The outcomes were 1) daily step counts and 2) exercise habit prevalence (≥ 30 min/day, ≥ 2 days/week, and over a year) from the National Health and Nutrition Surveys Japan (NHNS-J; 14 time points; aggregated data); and 3) sports participation (at least once a week) from the National Sports-Life Survey conducted every two years (NSLS; eight time points; individual-level data of 18,867 adults) and from the Public Opinion Survey on Sports Participation of Tokyo Residents (POSSP; eight time points; aggregated data). Age- and gender-adjusted regression models were used to estimate changes in the outcomes before and after the announcement.

There were no significant pre-Games effects of the Olympics on national-level physical activity participation among Japanese adults. Sports participation (56.4% and 57.5%, respectively; P = 0.518), daily steps (6,535 and 6,686 steps/day; P = 0.353), and exercise habit (30.7% and 29.1%, P = 0.309) did not change significantly before and after the announcement. Although an increase in sports participation among Tokyo residents was not found in the NSLS (61.5% and 59.3%, P = 0.227), it was observed in the POSSP (49.1% and 57.7%, P = 0.019). Nonetheless, this increase might not be related to the pre-Games effects since the trend diminished following the announcement.

Population-level physical activity did not show significant changes until 2020. Realising the physical activity legacy of an Olympics may require strategic promotion and cross-agency partnership implementation in the pre- and post-event period.

Device-assessed sleep and physical activity in individuals recovering from a hospital admission for COVID-19: a multicentre study.

International Journal of Epidemiology

The number of individuals recovering from severe COVID-19 is increasing rapidly. However, little is known about physical behaviours that make up the 24-h cycle within these individuals. This study aimed to describe physical behaviours following hospital admission for COVID-19 at eight months post-discharge including associations with acute illness severity and ongoing symptoms.

One thousand seventy-seven patients with COVID-19 discharged from hospital between March and November 2020 were recruited. Using a 14-day wear protocol, wrist-worn accelerometers were sent to participants after a five-month follow-up assessment. Acute illness severity was assessed by the WHO clinical progression scale, and the severity of ongoing symptoms was assessed using four previously reported data-driven clinical recovery clusters. Two existing control populations of office workers and individuals with type 2 diabetes were comparators.

Valid accelerometer data from 253 women and 462 men were included. Women engaged in a mean ± SD of 14.9 ± 14.7 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), with 12.1 ± 1.7 h/day spent inactive and 7.2 ± 1.1 h/day asleep. The values for men were 21.0 ± 22.3 and 12.6 ± 1.7 h /day and 6.9 ± 1.1 h/day, respectively. Over 60% of women and men did not have any days containing a 30-min bout of MVPA. Variability in sleep timing was approximately 2 h in men and women. More severe acute illness was associated with lower total activity and MVPA in recovery. The very severe recovery cluster was associated with fewer days/week containing continuous bouts of MVPA, longer total sleep time, and higher variability in sleep timing. Patients post-hospitalisation with COVID-19 had lower levels of physical activity, greater sleep variability, and lower sleep efficiency than a similarly aged cohort of office workers or those with type 2 diabetes.

Those recovering from a hospital admission for COVID-19 have low levels of physical activity and disrupted patterns of sleep several months after discharge. Our comparative cohorts indicate that the long-term impact of COVID-19 on physical behaviours is significant.