The latest medical research on Parkinson’s Disease

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about parkinson’s disease gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Role of NLRP3 Inflammasome in Parkinson's Disease and Therapeutic Considerations.

Journal Parkinsons Disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, with two main pathological features: misfolded α-synuclein protein ac...

Short-Term Motor Outcomes in Parkinson's Disease after Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Combined with Post-Operative Rehabilitation: A Pre-Post Comparison Study.

Parkinsons Disease

The effects of subthalamic nuclear deep brain stimulation therapy (STN-DBS) and combined postoperative rehabilitation for patients with Parkinson's disease with postural instability have yet to be well reported. This study investigated the effects of short-term postoperative rehabilitation with STN-DBS on physical function in patients with Parkinson's disease.

Patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease who were admitted to our hospital for STN-DBS surgery were included in this study. Data were prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed. Postoperative rehabilitation consisted of muscle-strengthening exercises, stretching, and balance exercises for 40-60 minutes per day for approximately 14 days. The Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest), Timed Up and Go test (TUG) seconds and steps, Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), seconds for 10 times toe-tapping, lower limb extension torque using StrengthErgo240, and center of pressure sway in the quiet standing posture were evaluated preoperatively, postoperatively, and at discharge. Mini-BESTest changes were also evaluated in the two groups classified by the presence or absence of postural instability. One-way and two-way repeated measures analyses of variance were performed for each of the three periods of change, and paired t-tests with the Bonferroni method were performed as multiple comparison tests. A stepwise multiple regression model was used to identify factors associated with balance improvement.

A total of 60 patients with Parkinson's disease were included, and there were significant increases in Mini-BESTest, TIS, StrengthErgo240, and postural sway during closed-eye standing compared to pre- and postoperative conditions at discharge (p < 0.05), and they decreased significantly compared to the postoperative period (p < 0.05). On stepwise multiple regression analysis, decreased steps of TUG and improvement of TIS scores were related to improvement of the Mini-BESTest (p < 0.05). In addition, Mini-BESTest scores in both groups with and without postural instability were significantly increased at discharge compared to preoperative and postoperative conditions (p < 0.01).

Postoperative rehabilitation combined with STN-DBS may provide short-term improvements in physical function compared with the preoperative medicated status. The improvements in gait step length and trunk function may be important factors for obtaining improvement of postoperative postural stability.

Telerehabilitation: A Practical Remote Alternative for Coaching and Monitoring Physical Kinetic Therapy in Patients with Mild and Moderate Disabling Parkinson's Disease during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Parkinsons Disease

The COVID-19 pandemic imposed social/physical distancing, lockdown measures, and forced reorientation of the rehabilitation programs for people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Epidemiologic safety measures boosted remote exercise-based treatment.

Remote delivery of rehabilitation care services is not typically used in our department. Therefore, this study aimed to assess and implement a telehealth physical rehabilitation program tailored for outpatients with idiopathic PD and slight or medium functional limitations.

A prospective study was performed on a group of outpatients with idiopathic PD, selected from the database of the neurorehabilitation clinic of the Emergency Teaching Hospital "Bagdasar-Arseni." We studied 17 patients (5 women and 12 men), aged between 54-70 years (average 65.9 ± 4.87), with a disease history of 7.3 ± 3.6 (years), with mild or moderate disabling clinical forms, quantified by an average Hoehn and Yahr score of 2.3 ± 0.35 (limits 1.5-3). All patients underwent pharmacologic treatment with unchanged doses throughout the study. No patients had disabling osteoarticular problems (all could walk independently) and had no significant psycho-cognitive dysfunction. Patients were supervised and coached online in tandem by the therapist and physician. In addition, a family member assisted and supervised the patient's performance and coordinated the technical electronic procedures. Walking biodynamics was assessed by timing "6-meters walking" and "Get up and walk 3 meters" (TUG) tests. Each person attended ten sessions of motor telerehabilitation procedures (2 per week) lasting 50 minutes each during social distancing (October-December 2021).

None of the patients was at increased risk of falling. They all improved their locomotor performance, reflected in a significant decrease in TUG duration (the initial average time improved from 13.50 seconds to 10.57). The telerehabilitation program also significantly improved the average walking speed (initially, 44.5 cm/sec and finally, it raised to 56.8 cm/sec). Discussion. The TUG and "6-meters walking" tests are helpful tools for a global biodynamic remote assessment of PD patients. Limitations of the study: a small group of selected patients, restrictive working conditions (due to epidemiological social/physical restrictions and no direct physiotherapist-patient contact), and need for supervision by an attendant to assist the subject and perform the audio-video transmission. Further studies are necessary to identify the optimal web-based model of care and boost the implementation of this modern neurorehabilitation concept.

Telemedicine turned the virtual space into a new reality and may compensate for the restrictions imposed on face-to-face meetings in pandemic conditions. Moreover, with modern telecommunication techniques, a regular and individualized physical kinetic rehabilitation program can be performed even in pandemic conditions. Remote delivery of kinetic motor programs was appropriate for selected groups of PD patients.

Swallow Safety and Laryngeal Kinematics: A Comparison of Dysphagia Between Parkinson's Disease and Cerebrovascular Accident.

Journal Parkinsons Disease

Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are well established etiologies of dysphagia. However, differing physiological mechanisms underlying dysphagia may exist between these two causes. There have been limited investigations specifically comparing dysphagia between these two groups. Comparing dysphagia presentation in two different populations may improve clinical expectations, guide treatment approaches, and inform future research.

This study examined the differences in presentation of dysphagia between PD and CVA. Dysphagia presentation, swallow safety, and laryngeal kinematics were compared between two clinical cohorts. What factors best predicted airway invasion in each group were explored.

110 swallow studies of individuals with PD and CVA who were referred for swallowing evaluation were obtained. Each video was analyzed for quantitative dysphagia presentation using the Videofluoroscopic Dysphagia Scale (VDS), swallow safety using the Penetration-Aspiration scale, and kinematic timings of the laryngeal vestibule (time-to-laryngeal vestibule closure [LVC] and closure duration [LVCd]).

Frequencies of penetration or aspiration were similar between groups. The PD group displayed significantly greater pharyngeal stage swallow impairment than CVA, with more frequent reduced laryngeal elevation and increased vallecular residue. The CVA group displayed significantly greater oral stage impairment, with prolonged oral transit times. Time-to-LVC was significantly prolonged and was the strongest predictor of airway invasion in the PD group, but not for CVA.

Similar airway invasion rates for PD and CVA indicate the importance of screening for dysphagia in PD. Laryngeal kinematics as significant contributors to airway invasion in PD but not for CVA highlight the need for further research into these mechanisms and for targeted treatment approaches to dysphagia.

Effects of Levodopa-Carbidopa Intestinal Gel on Dyskinesia and Non-Motor Symptoms Including Sleep: Results from a Meta-Analysis with 24-Month Follow-Up.

Journal Parkinsons Disease

In advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), dyskinesias and non-motor symptoms such as sleep dysfunction can significantly impair quality of life, and high-quality management is an unmet need.

To analyze changes in dyskinesia and non-motor symptoms (including sleep) among studies with levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) in patients with advanced PD.

A comprehensive literature review identified relevant studies examining LCIG efficacy. Outcomes of interest were dyskinesia (UDysRS, UPDRS IV item 32), overall non-motor symptoms (NMSS), mentation/behavior/mood (UPDRS I), and sleep/daytime sleepiness (PDSS-2, ESS). The pooled mean (95% confidence interval) change from baseline per outcome was estimated for each 3-month interval with sufficient data (i.e., reported by≥3 studies) up to 24 months using a random-effects model.

Seventeen open-label studies evaluating 1,243 patients with advanced PD were included. All outcomes of interest with sufficient data for meta-analysis showed statistically significant improvement within 6 months of starting LCIG. There were statistically significant improvements in dyskinesia duration as measured by UPDRS IV item 32 at 6 months (-1.10 [-1.69, -0.51] h/day) and 12 months (-1.35 [-2.07, -0.62] h/day). There were statistically and clinically significant improvements in non-motor symptoms as measured by NMSS scores at 3 months (-28.71 [-40.26, -17.15] points). Significant reduction of NMSS burden was maintained through 24 months (-17.61 [-21.52, -13.70] points). UPDRS I scores significantly improved at 3 months (-0.39 [-0.55, -0.22] points). Clinically significant improvements in PDSS-2 and ESS scores were observed at 6 and 12 months in individual studies.

Patients with advanced PD receiving LCIG showed significant sustained improvements in the burden of dyskinesia and non-motor symptoms up to 24 months after initiation.

Video-Based Automated Assessment of Movement Parameters Consistent with MDS-UPDRS III in Parkinson's Disease.

Journal Parkinsons Disease

Among motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), including rigidity and resting tremor, bradykinesia is a mandatory feature to define the parkinsonian syndrome. MDS-UPDRS III is the worldwide reference scale to evaluate the parkinsonian motor impairment, especially bradykinesia. However, MDS-UPDRS III is an agent-based score making reproducible measurements and follow-up challenging.

Using a deep learning approach, we developed a tool to compute an objective score of bradykinesia based on the guidelines of the gold-standard MDS-UPDRS III.

We adapted and applied two deep learning algorithms to detect a two-dimensional (2D) skeleton of the hand composed of 21 predefined points, and transposed it into a three-dimensional (3D) skeleton for a large database of videos of parkinsonian patients performing MDS-UPDRS III protocols acquired in the Movement Disorder unit of Avicenne University Hospital.

We developed a 2D and 3D automated analysis tool to study the evolution of several key parameters during the protocol repetitions of the MDS-UPDRS III. Scores from 2D automated analysis showed a significant correlation with gold-standard ratings of MDS-UPDRS III, measured with coefficients of determination for the tapping (0.609) and hand movements (0.701) protocols using decision tree algorithms. The individual correlations of the different parameters measured with MDS-UPDRS III scores carry meaningful information and are consistent with MDS-UPDRS III guidelines.

We developed a deep learning-based tool to precisely analyze movement parameters allowing to reliably score bradykinesia for parkinsonian patients in a MDS-UPDRS manner.

Management of Sleep Disturbances in Parkinson's Disease.

Journal Parkinsons Disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is defined by its motor symptoms rigidity, tremor, and akinesia. However, non-motor symptoms, particularly autonomic disor...

Cost-Effectiveness and Cost-Utility of Early Levodopa in Parkinson's Disease.

Journal Parkinsons Disease

In the Levodopa in EArly Parkinson's disease (LEAP) study, 445 patients were randomized to levodopa/carbidopa 100/25 mg three times per day for 80 weeks (early-start) or placebo for 40 weeks followed by levodopa/carbidopa 100/25 mg three times per day for 40 weeks (delayed-start).

This paper reports the results of the economic evaluation performed alongside the LEAP-study.

Early-start treatment was evaluated versus delayed-start treatment, in which the cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and the cost-utility analysis (CUA) were performed from the societal perspective, including health care costs among providers, non-reimbursable out-of-pocket expenses of patients, employer costs of sick leave, and lowered productivity while at work. The outcome measure for the CEA was the extra cost per unit decrease on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale 80 weeks after baseline. The outcome measure for the CUA was the extra costs per additional quality adjusted life year (QALY) during follow-up.

212 patients in the early-start and 219 patients in the delayed-start group reported use of health care resources. With savings of € 59 per patient (BCa 95% CI: -829, 788) in the early-start compared to the delayed-start group, societal costs were balanced. The early-start group showed a mean of 1.30 QALYs (BCa 95% CI: 1.26, 1.33) versus 1.30 QALYs (BCa 95% CI: 1.27, 1.33) for the delayed-start group. Because of this negligible difference, incremental cost-effectiveness and cost-utility ratios were not calculated.

From an economic point of view, this study suggests that early treatment with levodopa is not more expensive than delayed treatment with levodopa.

B Lymphocytes in Parkinson's Disease.

Journal Parkinsons Disease

It is well known that B lymphocytes differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibodies. B cells also perform a number of less well-known roles...

Are Virtual Objective Assessments of Fall-Risk Feasible and Safe for People with Parkinson's Disease?

"Movement Disorders Clinical Practice

Falls are inherent to Parkinson's disease (PD) progression, and risk assessment is mandatory for optimal long term management.

To determine if the telehealth application of two observer-based, objective measures of fall-risk in PD-Five-Times-Sit-To-Stand (FTSTS) and 360° Rapid-Turns-Test (RTT)-is feasible and safe.

Following in-clinic training, 15 people with Hoehn and Yahr Stage 2 (n = 8) and 3 (n = 7) PD, median MoCA score 25 (range 14-29), and subjective freezing-of-gait (n = 13), participated in four televisits with care partners biweekly for 10 weeks where virtual FTSTS/RTT assessments were performed.

Participants completed all protocol-driven 120 virtual FTSTS and 60 RTT assessments with effective ratability (feasibility) and zero adverse events (safety). 22% virtual FTSTS and 55% RTT met criteria for high fall-risk designation.

Objective fall-risk assessment with virtual FTSTS and RTT through telehealth among HY2-3 PD patients, with varying motor and cognitive function, is feasible and safe following introductory in-clinic training.

Clinical Features, Neuroimaging, and Levodopa-Responsiveness in Holmes' Tremor: A Video-Based Case-Series with a Review of the Literature.

"Movement Disorders Clinical Practice

Holmes' tremor (HT) is a low-frequency tremor characterized by a combination of rest, posture, and action components. We are reporting the clinical features, neuroimaging findings, and levodopa responsiveness in 12 patients with HT.

The majority of the patients were male (11/12). Dystonia was observed in 10 patients and the remaining two patients had head tremor, a "forme-fruste" of cervical dystonia. The underlying etiologies were vascular (n = 8), head trauma (n = 2), and tumor resection (n = 2). Neuroimaging showed isolated involvement of the midbrain in four, thalamus in two, and basal ganglia and cerebellum in one patient each. A combination of the lesion (thalamus and cerebellum = 2; cerebellopontine angle = 1, and cortical/subcortical = 1) was present in four patients. Levodopa responsiveness was seen in 75% of patients including one with levodopa-induced dyskinesia.

Of 139 patients from 49 studies, levodopa was tried in 123 patients. Improvement with levodopa was seen in 71 patients (57.72%). No improvement with levodopa was observed in 33 patients (26.82%) and details regarding therapeutic response were unavailable in 19 patients (15.44%).

Dystonia is an important clinical manifestation of HT. Levodopa responsiveness seen in the majority of the patients is consistent with the hypothesis that nigrostriatal pathway damage is crucial for the pathophysiology of HT.

Adverse Events of Physiotherapy Interventions in Parkinsonian Patients.

"Movement Disorders Clinical Practice

Physiotherapists have an ethical, professional, and regulatory responsibility for safety in all aspects of patient care. Notwithstanding, the adverse events issue has been inadequately addressed in the rehabilitation research field.

To determine the frequency and characterize the adverse events that occur during or in between physiotherapy sessions for parkinsonian syndromes.

An exploratory clinical study was conducted. Physiotherapists were asked to actively report the adverse events that occurred during or between sessions for parkinsonian syndromes.

A total of 100 patients were enrolled in the study, which resulted in 1845 sessions. The most common adverse events reported were falls, pain/discomfort, and hypotension, with a total of 128 adverse events reported.

During the physiotherapy sessions, adverse events do occur. Future research should clarify the relationship between AE occurrence and the type of intervention as well as causality and risk-minimization strategies.