The latest medical research on Surgical Oncology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about surgical oncology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Association of Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 Expression With Pathologic Response After Neoadjuvant Treatment in Patients With Resected Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.

JAMA Surgery

The use of neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) in resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains controversial. A favorable pathologic response (complete or marked tumor regression) to NAT is associated with better outcomes in patients with resected PDAC. The role of NAT for early systemic control compared with immediate surgical resection for PDAC is under investigation. In the era of precision medicine, biomarkers for patient selection and prediction of therapy response are crucial.

To evaluate the use of assessment for protein expression on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy specimens in predicting pathologic response to NAT in treatment-naive patients.

This was a single-institution prognostic study from a high-volume center for pancreatic cancer. All specimens were obtained between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2018, with a median (SE) follow-up of 20.2 (1.4) months. Analysis of the data was performed from October 1, 2019, to April 30, 2021. Targeted RNA sequencing of frozen FNA biopsy specimens from a discovery cohort of 23 patients was performed to identify genes with aberrant expression that was associated with patients' pathologic response to NAT. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on an additional 80 FNA biopsy specimens to assess expression of matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP-7) and its association with pathologic response. Receiver operating characteristic curves for prediction of favorable pathologic response were determined.

In the discovery cohort (12 [52.1%] male; 3 [13.0%] Black and 20 [86.9%] White), RNA sequencing showed that lower MMP-7 expression was associated with favorable pathologic response (College of American Pathologists system scores of 0 [complete response] and 1 [marked response]). In the validation cohort (40 [50.0%] female; 9 [11.3%] Black and 71 [88.7%] White), patients with negative MMP-7 expression were significantly more likely to have a favorable pathologic response (odds ratio, 21.25; 95% CI, 6.19-72.95; P = .001). Receiver operating characteristic curves for prediction of favorable pathologic response from multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression modeling showed that MMP-7 expression increased the area under the curve from 0.726 to 0.906 (P < .001) even after stratifying by resectability status. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of MMP-7 protein expression on FNA biopsy specimens in predicting unfavorable pathologic response (scores of 2 [partial response] or 3 [poor or no response]) were 88.2% and 73.9%, respectively.

Assessment of MMP-7 expression on FNA biopsy specimens at the time of diagnosis may help identify patients who would benefit the most from NAT.

Self-selection vs Randomized Assignment of Treatment for Appendicitis.

JAMA Surgery

For adults with appendicitis, several randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that antibiotics are an effective alternative to appendectomy. However, it remains unknown how the characteristics of patients in such trials compare with those of patients who select their treatment and whether outcomes differ.

To compare participants in the Comparison of Outcomes of Antibiotic Drugs and Appendectomy (CODA) randomized clinical trial (RCT) with a parallel cohort study of participants who declined randomization and self-selected treatment.

The CODA trial was conducted in 25 US medical centers. Participants were enrolled between May 3, 2016, and February 5, 2020; all participants were eligible for at least 1 year of follow-up, with all follow-up ending in 2021. The randomized cohort included 1094 adults with appendicitis; the self-selection cohort included patients who declined participation in the randomized group, of whom 253 selected appendectomy and 257 selected antibiotics. In this secondary analysis, characteristics and outcomes in both self-selection and randomized cohorts are described with an exploratory analysis of cohort status and receipt of appendectomy.

Appendectomy vs antibiotics.

Characteristics among participants randomized to either appendectomy or antibiotics were compared with those of participants who selected their own treatment.

Clinical characteristics were similar across the self-selection cohort (510 patients; mean age, 35.8 years [95% CI, 34.5-37.1]; 218 female [43%; 95% CI, 39%-47%]) and the randomized group (1094 patients; mean age, 38.2 years [95% CI, 37.4-39.0]; 386 female [35%; 95% CI, 33%-38%]). Compared with the randomized group, those in the self-selection cohort were less often Spanish speaking (n = 99 [19%; 95% CI, 16%-23%] vs n = 336 [31%; 95% CI, 28%-34%]), reported more formal education (some college or more, n = 355 [72%; 95% CI, 68%-76%] vs n = 674 [63%; 95% CI, 60%-65%]), and more often had commercial insurance (n = 259 [53%; 95% CI, 48%-57%] vs n = 486 [45%; 95% CI, 42%-48%]). Most outcomes were similar between the self-selection and randomized cohorts. The number of patients undergoing appendectomy by 30 days was 38 (15.3%; 95% CI, 10.7%-19.7%) among those selecting antibiotics and 155 (19.2%; 95% CI, 15.9%-22.5%) in those who were randomized to antibiotics (difference, 3.9%; 95% CI, -1.7% to 9.5%). Differences in the rate of appendectomy were primarily observed in the non-appendicolith subgroup.

This secondary analysis of the CODA RCT found substantially similar outcomes across the randomized and self-selection cohorts, suggesting that the randomized trial results are generalizable to the community at large. Identifier: NCT02800785.

Management of Non-Mass Enhancement at Breast Magnetic Resonance in Screening Settings Referred for Magnetic Resonance-Guided Biopsy.

Breast Cancer

According to the Breast Imaging and Reporting Data System (BI-RADS), one of the main limitations of MRI is diagnosing the non-mass enhancement (NME). The NME lesion is challenging since it is unique to the MRI lexicon. This study aims to report our experience with NME lesions diagnosed by MRI referred for MRI-guided biopsies and discuss the management and follow-up of these lesions.

We retrospectively evaluated all MRI-guide breast biopsies. We included all patients referred for NME breast MRI-guided biopsy in screening settings. All patients had a negative second-look mammography or ultrasonography. We correlated the distribution and internal enhancement pattern (IEP) of the NME lesions with histology. Invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC) of no special type and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) were considered malignant lesions.

From January-2018 to July-2021, we included 96 women with a total of 96 lesions in the study. There were 90 benign and 6 malignant lesions with DCIS prevalence (5/6 cancers). The most frequent benign lesion type was fibrocystic changes. There were no NME lesions with diffuse or multiple area distribution features referred to MRI-guided biopsy. The positive-predictive values (PPV) were respectively 0.0%, 2.5%, 9.0%, and 11.0% for linear, focal, regional, and segmental distribution describers, and 0.0, 3.0%, 7.9%, and 50% for homogenous, heterogeneous, clumped, and clustered-ring enhancement patterns.

We observe the high potential risk for malignancy in the clustered-ring enhancement followed by the clumped pattern. Segmental distribution presented the highest predictive-positive values.

Is Intussusception in an Adult with Active COVID-19 Infection a Surprise?

indian journal of surgery

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS COV2) had rapidly spread and caused a global pandemic worldwide. The most common symptoms...

Characteristics, treatment trends, and long-term outcomes of Japanese patients with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC).

Breast Cancer

To clarify the characteristics, treatment trends, and long-term outcomes of patients with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC).

PABC includes breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy (PBC) and breast cancer diagnosed within 1 year after childbirth or during lactation (LBC). We compared clinical characteristics of 126 patients with LBC and 49 patients with PBC who underwent surgery at our hospital from 1946 to 2018. Survival was compared between patients with LBC and those with PBC in terms of breast cancer-specific disease-free survival (BC-DFS) and overall survival (OS).

Patients with LBC were more likely to have family history, lymph node metastasis, lymphatic invasion, and to receive chemotherapy than patients with PBC. Patients with LBC showed poorer BS-DFS and OS than patients with PBC. Among patients with LBC, those treated after 2005 were older at surgery, had a smaller tumor size, received more systemic therapy, and had a more favorable prognosis than patients treated before 2004. Family history, breast cancer within 1 year after childbirth, and surgery before 2004 as well as cStage, lymph node metastasis, and lymphatic invasion were significantly associated with poor prognosis in patients with LBC. In the multivariate analysis for BC-DFS and OS among patients with PABC, LBC vs PBC did not remain as an independent prognostic factor while cStage remained.

Patients with LBC had a poorer prognosis than those with PBC, most likely due to disease progression rather than biological characteristics. Early detection and optimization of systemic treatments are critical for improving the outcomes of patients with LBC.

Effect of patient decision aids on decisional conflict and regret associated with breast cancer surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

Breast Cancer, NCT03105076; April 7, 2017 ( http://www.

In this two-group, outcome assessor-blind, randomized controlled trial, 151 patients diagnosed as having breast cancer were assigned to the PDA (SDM with PDA) group or the standard (SDM without PDA) group. Demographic and clinical variables were analyzed to identify variables affecting the treatment choice. The patients' decision-making difficulties were evaluated using the four-item SURE scale during preoperative hospitalization, and decisional conflicts were examined using the five-item Decision Regret scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) 1 month after surgery.

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PDAs did not assist the patients with breast cancer in making breast surgery-related decisions. Clinicians should focus on SDM grounded in evidence-based medicine with care and help patients consider their individual preferences.

Comparative study of the usefulness of adjunctive tomosynthesis in breast cancer screening by mammography and ultrasound in Japan.

Breast Cancer

There are few studies have conducted digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in addition to digital mammography (2DDM) and ultrasound (US) for screening. The purpose of this study is to determine the possibility of synergistic effects of DBT and US screening for Japanese.

5023 examinations of the opportunistic screening using 2DDM and US (2D group: 2581) or 2DDM and US plus DBT (3 group: 2442) were performed at our facility from May 1, 2017 to March 31, 2019. This study was not RCT, and the backgrounds of the two groups were different.

The recall rate was 3.1% in the 2D group and 2.6% for the 3D group (p = 0.27). The number of detected cancer cases was 6 (0.23%) in the 2D group and 12 (0.49%) in the 3D group (p = 0.16). The positive predictive value (PPV) was 7.4% for the 2D group and 19.0% for the 3D group (p = 0.045). There was one invasive ductal carcinoma case which had no findings in 2DDM and US, but had a slight distortion in the images of DBT.

We examined and reported whether DBT was useful for breast cancer screening combined with mammography and US. Compared to the 2D group, the 3D group showed better results of PPV with significant difference. However, due to the non-randomized design and difference between the two groups, the results should be interpreted in caution. Adding DBT in 2DDM and US screening would be acceptable only if the benefits and disadvantages are explained to the women undergoing the screening.

Sex-Based Disparities in Timeliness of Trauma Care and Discharge Disposition.

JAMA Surgery

Differences in time to diagnostic and therapeutic measures can contribute to disparities in outcomes. However, whether there is an association of timeliness by sex for trauma patients is unknown.

To investigate whether sex-based differences in time to definitive interventions exist for trauma patients in the US and whether these differences are associated with outcomes.

This was a retrospective cohort study conducted from July 2020 to July 2021, using the 2013 to 2016 Trauma Quality Improvement Program (TQIP) databases from level I to III trauma centers in the US. Patients 18 years or older with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) greater than 15 and who carried diagnoses of traumatic brain injury, intra-abdominal injury, pelvic fracture, femur fracture, and spinal injury as a result of their trauma were included in the study. Data were analyzed from July 2020 to July 2021.

Primary outcomes assessed timeliness to interventions, using Wilcoxon signed rank and χ2 tests. Secondary outcomes included location of discharge after injury, using propensity score-matched generalized estimating equations modeling.

Of the 28 332 patients included, 20 002 (70.6%) were male patients (mean [SD] age, 43.3 [18.2] years) and 8330 (29.4%) were female patients (mean [SD] age, 48.5 [21.1] years), with significantly different distributions of ISS scores (ISS score 16-24: male patient, 10 622 [53.1%]; female patient, 4684 [56.2%]; ISS score 41-74: male patient, 2052 [10.3%]; female patient, 852 [10.2%]). Male patients more frequently had abdominal (4257 [21.3%] vs 1268 [15.2%]) and spinal cord (3989 [20.0%] vs 1274 [15.3%]) injuries, whereas female patients experienced greater proportions of femur (3670 [44.0%] vs 8422 [42.1%]) and pelvic (3970 [47.6%] vs 6963 [34.8%]) fractures. Female patients experienced significantly longer emergency department length of stay (median [IQR], 184 [92-314] minutes vs 172 [86-289] minutes; P < .001), longer time in pretriage (median [IQR], 52 [36-80] minutes vs 49 [34-77] minutes; P < .001), and increased likelihood of discharge to nursing or long-term care facilities instead of home after matching by age, ISS, mechanism, and injury type (male patient:female patient, odds ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.67-0.78).

Results of this cohort study suggest that female trauma patients experienced slightly longer delays in trauma care and had a higher likelihood of discharge to long-term care facilities than their male counterparts.

Proposing a Sex-Adjusted Sodium-Adjusted MELD Score for Liver Transplant Allocation.

JAMA Surgery

Liver allocation is determined by the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), a scoring system based on 4 laboratory measurements. During the MELD era, sex disparities in liver transplant have increased and there are no modifications to MELD based on sex.

To use laboratory values stored in electronic health records to describe population-level sex differences in all MELD laboratory values (in healthy individuals and patients with liver disease) and propose a sex adjustment.

A retrospective cohort study was conducted from March 2019 to April 2020 to evaluate sex differences in laboratory values in liver transplant patients, patients with liver disease who did not undergo transplant, and healthy controls. Primary analyses were conducted in Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC)'s deidentified electronic health record system. Replication analyses were conducted in the All of Us Research Program. Simulations of a sex-adjusted sodium-adjusted MELD (MELDNa) score were completed using liver transplant waiting list data from the liver simulated allocation modeling system. Patients who regularly used VUMC with measurements for any MELDNa component laboratory were included in the analyses. Analysis took place from November 2019 to March 2021.

Electronic health record-reported sex.

Creatinine, bilirubin, international normalized ratio, and sodium levels.

The VUMC sample was composed of 623 931 individuals (359 976 [57.7%] female) with a median (IQR) age of 44 (23-61) years. All component MELDNa laboratory values and calculated MELDNa scores yielded significant sex differences within VUMC (mean [SD] creatinine: male, 0.99 [0.39] mg/dL; female, 0.79 [0.30] mg/dL; P < .001; bilirubin: male, 0.76 [0.83] mg/dL; female, 0.58 [0.64] mg/dL; P < .001; international normalized ratio of prothrombin rate: male, 1.24 [0.42]; female, 1.20 [0.40]; P < .001; sodium: male, 139.00 [2.36] mEq/L; female, 139.03 [2.28] mEq/L; P < .001), resulting in MELDNa scoring that disadvantaged female individuals. This pattern persisted when the sample was divided into healthy controls, individuals with liver disease who did not undergo transplant, and patients who did undergo liver transplant. Female transplant patients had a greater number of decompensation traits (mean [SD]: male, 1.34 [1.11]; female, 1.60 [1.09]; P = .005), despite having lower MELDNa scores (mean [SD]: male, 21.72 [6.11]; female, 20.21 [6.15]; P = .005), indicating MELDNa scores are not accurately representing disease severity in female individuals. In simulations, the sex-adjusted MELDNa score modestly increased female transplant rate and decreased overall death.

These results demonstrate pervasive sex differences in all laboratory values used in MELDNa scoring and highlight the need and utility of a sex-adjustment to the MELDNa protocol.

The potential role of nicotine in breast cancer initiation, development, angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, and resistance to therapy.

Breast Cancer

A large body of research studying the relationship between tobacco and cancer has led to the knowledge that smoking cigarettes adversely affects ca...

Phytochemical-conjugated bio-safe gold nanoparticles in breast cancer: a comprehensive update.

Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and is rated among one of the three common malignancies worldwide in combination with colon an...

Associations of adiposity and weight change with recurrence and survival in breast cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Breast Cancer

Adiposity and weight change among patients with breast cancer are associated with mortality, but there is limited evidence on the associations with distant recurrence or other causes of death or on central adiposity. Moreover, the relationship with breast cancer subtypes and by menopause status is unclear.

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies of breast cancer patients investigating the associations of general and central adiposity (body mass index [BMI] and waist circumference [WC], respectively), before and after diagnosis, and weight change, with all-cause mortality, breast cancer-specific mortality (BCSM), and recurrence.

173 studies (519,544 patients, 60,249 deaths overall, and 25,751 breast cancer deaths) were included. For BMI  < 1 year post diagnosis, compared with normal weight women, the summary relative risk (RR) for obese women was 1.21 (1.15-1.27) for all-cause mortality, 1.22 (1.13-1.32) for BCSM, 1.12 (1.06-1.18) for recurrence, and 1.19 (1.11-1.28) for distant recurrence. Obesity was associated with all-cause mortality and BCSM in patients with ER+ or HER2+ tumors, whereas no clear association was observed in patients with triple-negative tumors. Similar associations were observed by menopausal status. Stronger associations were observed in East Asians than Europeans. Central adiposity was associated with all-cause mortality, while large weight gain was associated with all-cause mortality, BCSM, and recurrence.

Higher adiposity is associated with all-cause mortality, BCSM, recurrence, and distant recurrence in breast cancer patients, with similar associations by menopausal status and some evidence of heterogeneity by subtypes. Weight gain is also associated with recurrence and survival among breast cancer patients.