The latest medical research on Surgical Oncology

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about surgical oncology gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Comparative Safety and Effectiveness of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Sleeve Gastrectomy for Weight Loss and Type 2 Diabetes Across Race and Ethnicity in the PCORnet Bariatric Study Cohort.

JAMA Surgery

Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe obesity; yet it is unclear whether the long-term safety and comparative effectiveness of these operations differ across racial and ethnic groups.

To compare outcomes of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) across racial and ethnic groups in the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network (PCORnet) Bariatric Study.

This was a retrospective, observational, comparative effectiveness cohort study that comprised 25 health care systems in the PCORnet Bariatric Study. Patients were adults and adolescents aged 12 to 79 years who underwent a primary (first nonrevisional) RYGB or SG operation between January 1, 2005, and September 30, 2015, at participating health systems. Patient race and ethnicity included Black, Hispanic, White, other, and unrecorded. Data were analyzed from July 1, 2021, to January 17, 2022.

RYGB or SG.

Percentage total weight loss (%TWL); type 2 diabetes remission, relapse, and change in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level; and postsurgical safety and utilization outcomes (operations, interventions, revisions/conversions, endoscopy, hospitalizations, mortality, 30-day major adverse events) at 1, 3, and 5 years after surgery.

A total of 36 871 patients (mean [SE] age, 45.0 [11.7] years; 29 746 female patients [81%]) were included in the weight analysis. Patients identified with the following race and ethnic categories: 6891 Black (19%), 8756 Hispanic (24%), 19 645 White (53%), 826 other (2%), and 783 unrecorded (2%). Weight loss and mean reductions in HbA1c level were larger for RYGB than SG in all years for Black, Hispanic, and White patients (difference in 5-year weight loss: Black, -7.6%; 95% CI, -8.0 to -7.1; P < .001; Hispanic, -6.2%; 95% CI, -6.6 to -5.9; P < .001; White, -5.9%; 95% CI, -6.3 to -5.7; P < .001; difference in change in year 5 HbA1c level: Black, -0.29; 95% CI, -0.51 to -0.08; P = .009; Hispanic, -0.45; 95% CI, -0.61 to -0.29; P < .001; and White, -0.25; 95% CI, -0.40 to -0.11; P = .001.) The magnitude of these differences was small among racial and ethnic groups (1%-3% of %TWL). Black and Hispanic patients had higher risk of hospitalization when they had RYGB compared with SG (hazard ratio [HR], 1.45; 95% CI, 1.17-1.79; P = .001 and 1.48; 95% CI, 1.22-1.79; P < .001, respectively). Hispanic patients had greater risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.24-4.70; P = .01) and higher odds of a 30-day major adverse event (odds ratio, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.38-2.68; P < .001) for RYGB compared with SG. There was no interaction between race and ethnicity and operation type for diabetes remission and relapse.

Variability of the comparative effectiveness of operations for %TWL and HbA1c level across race and ethnicity was clinically small; however, differences in safety and utilization outcomes were clinically and statistically significant for Black and Hispanic patients who had RYGB compared with SG. These findings can inform shared decision-making regarding bariatric operation choice for different racial and ethnic groups of patients.

Modulation of Breast Cancer Cell FASN Expression by Obesity-Related Systemic Factors.

Breast Cancer

The objective of this study is to determine the impact of exposure to obesity-related systemic factors on fatty acid synthase enzyme (FASN) expression in breast cancer cells.

MCF-7 breast cancer cells were exposed to sera from patients having obesity or not having obesity and subjected to quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Subsequent MTT and colony-forming assays using both MCF-7 and T-47D cells exposed to sera and treated with or without FASN inhibitor, TVB-3166, were used. MCF-7 cells were then treated with insulin and the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) processing inhibitor, betulin, prior to analysis of FASN expression by quantitative RT-qPCR and western blot. Insulin-induced SREBP-FASN promoter binding was analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation with an anti-SREBP antibody.

In response to sera exposure (body mass index [BMI] >30) there was an increase in FASN expression in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, treatment with the FASN inhibitor, TVB-3166, resulted in a decreased breast cancer cell survival and proliferation while increasing apoptosis upon sera exposure (BMI >30). Insulin-exposed MCF-7 cells exhibited an increased FASN messenger RNA and protein expression, which is abrogated upon SREBP inhibition. In addition, insulin exposure induced enhanced SREBP binding to the FASN promoter.

Our results implicate FASN as a potential mediator of obesity-induced breast cancer aggression and a therapeutic target of patients with obesity-induced breast cancer.

Cost-effectiveness of clinical breast examination screening programme among HER2-positive breast cancer patients: a modelling study.

Breast Cancer

For many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), breast cancer (BC) screening based on mammography is not a viable option. Clinical breast examination (CBE) may represent a pragmatic and cost-effective alternative. This paper examines the cost-effectiveness of CBE screening programme among a patient group for whom its cost-effectiveness is likely to be least evident (HER2-positive patients) and discuss the wider implications for BC screening in LMICs.

A Markov model was used to examine clinical and economic outcomes over a life-time horizon from the patient, public payer, and healthcare sector perspective. HER2-positive patients entered the model at either disease-free survival or metastatic BC state. The downstaging effect of CBE determined the starting probabilities in the no-screening and screening scenarios. The model used a monthly cycle length, with half-cycle correction. Costs and outcomes were discounted at 1.5% annually.

Compared with no-screening, the cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per quality-adjusted life-year gained for the CBE screening programme was $1801, $2381, and $4179 from three mentioned perspectives, respectively. The finding of cost-effectiveness remained robust to a range of sensitivity analyses. The parameters to which ICERs are most sensitive are average age of cohorts, reduction in proportion of metastatic patients at diagnosis, cost of CBE, and BC detection rate of the programme.

For HER2-positive patients and compared with no-screening, CBE screening programme in Vietnam is cost-effective from all investigated perspectives. CBE is a 'good value' intervention and should be considered for implementation throughout Vietnam as well as in LMICs where mammography is not feasible.

Risk factors associated with chronic pain after mastectomy: a prospective study with a 5-year follow-up in Japan.

Breast Cancer

Chronic pain is a major complication following breast surgery including breast reconstruction. We previously examined prospective patient-specific and medical/surgical factors that predict chronic pain a year after breast surgery in the Japanese population. Five-year survivorship is essential for breast cancer patients. This report is a 4-year follow-up study following the previous research.

A follow-up observation study was performed 5 years after breast operations. The subjects were patients who underwent breast surgery, including tissue expander/implant (TE/implant), DIEP procedures and mastectomy only. Pain at 5 years was assessed using the Japanese Version of the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ-JV). A multiple linear regression model was used to examine the relationships of clinical factors with chronic pain.

Questionnaires were completed by 132 subjects. No factor related to chronic pain was significantly related to the MPQ pain ratings. Among patient characteristics, a psychotic or neurological medical history was related to significantly lower visual analog scale (p = 0.02) and present pain index (p = 0.04) scores. A history of chemotherapy and/or hormone therapy was significantly associated with the frequency of use of pain medication postoperatively (p = 0.05) and effect on the social life of the patients (p = 0.02).

A psychotic or neurological history and a history of chemotherapy and/or hormone therapy were identified as risk factors for chronic pain after breast surgery, but the type of operation was not associated with chronic pain.

Serotonin 5-HT7 receptor is a biomarker poor prognostic factor and induces proliferation of triple-negative breast cancer cells through FOXM1.

Breast Cancer

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer and associated with poor prognosis and shorter survival due to significant genetic heterogeneity, drug resistance and lack of effective targeted therapeutics. Therefore, novel molecular targets and therapeutic strategies are needed to improve patient survival. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) has been shown to induce growth stimulatory effects in breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms by which 5-HT exerts its oncogenic effects in TNBC still are not well understood.

Normal breast epithelium (MCF10A) and two TNBC cells (MDA-MB-231, BT-546) and MCF-7 cells (ER +) were used to investigate effects of 5-HT7 receptor. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based knockdown and metergoline (5-HT7 antagonist) were used to inhibit the activity of 5-HT7. Cell proliferation and colony formation were evaluated using MTS cell viability and colony formation assays, respectively. Western blotting was used to investigate 5-HT7, FOXM1 and its downstream targets protein expressions.

We demonstrated that 5-HT induces cell proliferation of TNBC cells and expression of 5-HT7 receptor and FOXM1 oncogenic transcription factor. We found that expression of 5-HT7 receptor is up-regulated in TNBC cells and higher 5-HT7 receptor expression is associated with poor patient prognosis and shorter patient survival. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of 5-HT7 receptor by siRNA and metergoline, respectively, suppressed TNBC cell proliferation and FOXM1 and its downstream mediators, including eEF2-Kinase (eEF2K) and cyclin-D1.

Our findings suggest for the first time that the 5-HT7 receptor promotes FOXM1, eEF2K and cyclin D1 signaling to support TNBC cell proliferation; thus, inhibition of 5-HT7 receptor/FOXM1 signaling may be used as a potential therapeutic strategy for targeting TNBC. 5-HT induces cell proliferation of TNBC cells through 5-HT7 receptor signaling. Also, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of 5-HT7 by RNAi (siRNA) and metergoline HTR7 antagonist, respectively inhibits FOXM1 oncogenic transcription factor and suppresses TNBC cell proliferation.

Artificial intelligence computer-aided detection enhances synthesized mammograms: comparison with original digital mammograms alone and in combination with tomosynthesis images in an experimental setting.

Breast Cancer

It remains unclear whether original full-field digital mammograms (DMs) can be replaced with synthesized mammograms in both screening and diagnostic settings. To compare reader performance of artificial intelligence computer-aided detection synthesized mammograms (AI CAD SMs) with that of DM alone or in combination with digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) images in an experimental setting.

We compared the performance of multireader (n = 4) and reading multicase (n = 388), in 84 cancers, 83 biopsy-proven benign lesions, and 221 normal or benign cases with negative results after 1-year follow-up. Each reading was independently interpreted with four reading modes: DM, AI CAD SM, DM + DBT, and AI CAD SM + DBT. The accuracy of probability of malignancy (POM) and five-category ratings were evaluated using areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) in the random-reader analysis.

The mean AUC values based on POM for DM, AI CAD SM, DM + DBT, and AI CAD SM + DBT were 0.871, 0.902, 0.895, and 0.909, respectively. The mean AUC of AI CAD SM was significantly higher (P = 0.002) than that of DM. For calcification lesions, the sensitivity of SM and DM did not differ significantly (P = 0.204). The mean AUC for AI CAD SM + DBT was higher than that of DM + DBT (P = 0.082). ROC curves based on the five-category ratings showed similar proximity of the overall performance levels.

AI CAD SM alone was superior to DM alone. Also, AI CAD SM + DBT was superior to DM + DBT but not statistically significant.

Association Between Geospatial Access to Care and Firearm Injury Mortality in Philadelphia.

JAMA Surgery

The burden of firearm violence in US cities continues to rise. The role of access to trauma center care as a trauma system measure with implications for firearm injury mortality has not been comprehensively evaluated.

To evaluate the association between geospatial access to care and firearm injury mortality in an urban trauma system.

Retrospective cohort study of all people 15 years and older shot due to interpersonal violence in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, between January 1, 2015, and August 9, 2021.

Geospatial access to care, defined as the predicted ground transport time to the nearest trauma center for each person shot, derived by geospatial network analysis.

Risk-adjusted mortality estimated using hierarchical logistic regression. The population attributable fraction was used to estimate the proportion of fatalities attributable to disparities in geospatial access to care.

During the study period, 10 105 people (910 [9%] female and 9195 [91%] male; median [IQR] age, 26 [21-28] years; 8441 [84%] Black, 1596 [16%] White, and 68 other [<1%], including Asian and unknown, consolidated owing to small numbers) were shot due to interpersonal violence in Philadelphia. Of these, 1999 (20%) died. The median (IQR) predicted transport time was 5.6 (3.8-7.2) minutes. After risk adjustment, each additional minute of predicted ground transport time was associated with an increase in odds of mortality (odds ratio [OR], 1.03 per minute; 95% CI, 1.01-1.05). Calculation of the population attributable fraction using mortality rate ratios for incremental 1-minute increases in predicted ground transport time estimated that 23% of shooting fatalities could be attributed to differences in access to care, equivalent to 455 deaths over the study period.

These findings indicate that geospatial access to care may be an important trauma system measure, improvements to which may result in reduced deaths from gun violence in US cities.

Missed Opportunities and Health Disparities for Advance Care Planning Before Elective Surgery in Older Adults.

JAMA Surgery

Advance care planning (ACP) prepares patients and caregivers for medical decision-making, yet it is underused in the perioperative surgical setting, particularly among older adults undergoing high-risk procedures who are at risk for postoperative complications. It is unknown what patient factors are associated with perioperative ACP documentation among older surgical patients.

To assess ACP documentation among high-risk patients 65 years and older undergoing elective surgery.

In this observational cohort study including 3671 patients 65 years and older undergoing elective surgery at a tertiary academic center in California, electronic health record data were linked to the National Surgical Quality Improvement Project outcomes data and the California statewide death registry. The study was conducted from January 1 to December 31, 2019. Data were analyzed from January to May 2022.

Elective surgery requiring an inpatient admission.

ACP documentation, defined as a discussion regarding goals of care documented in an ACP note, an advance directive, or a physician order for life-sustaining treatment (POLST) form, within 90 days before elective surgery requiring inpatient admission. Multivariate regression was performed to identify factors associated with missing ACP.

Among 3671 patients (median [IQR] age 72 [65-94] years; 1784 [48.6%] female; 401 [10.9%] Asian, 155 [4.2%] Black, 284 [7.7%] Latino/Latina, 2647 [72.1%] White, and 184 [5.0%] of other races or ethnicities, including American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, multiple races or ethnicities, other, and unknown or declined to respond, combined owing to small numbers), 539 (14.7%) had ACP documentation in the 90-day presurgery window. Of these 539, 448 (83.1%) had advance directives, and 60 (11.1%) had POLST forms. The 30-day and 1-year mortality were 0.7% (n = 27) and 6.6% (n = 244), respectively. Missing ACP was significantly associated with male sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.39; 95% CI, 1.14-1.69) and having a non-English preferred language (aOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.18-2.79). Medicare insurance was significantly associated with having ACP (aOR for missing ACP, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.40-0.95).

In this study, perioperative ACP was uncommon, particularly in men, individuals with a non-English preferred language, and those without Medicare insurance coverage. The perioperative setting may represent a missed opportunity for ACP for older surgical patients. When addressing ACP for surgical patients, particular attention should be paid to overcoming language-related disparities.

Risk factors for arm lymphedema following breast cancer surgery: a Japanese nationwide database study of 84,022 patients.

Breast Cancer

Although arm lymphedema is a well-known complication following breast cancer surgery, previous studies involving a small population showed inconsistent results regarding the risk. Therefore, we examined the risk factors using a Japanese nationwide database.

Female patients who underwent breast cancer surgery from April, 2016, to March, 2020, were identified from a Japanese nationwide database. Multivariable survival analyses for 19 baseline factors (12 patient characteristics, four tumor characteristics, and three surgical procedures) were conducted to investigate risk factors associated with treatments for postoperative lymphedema (such as lymphatic bypass, compositive drainage therapy, hospitalization, and Kampo use) with a multilevel model to adjust for within-hospital clustering. We also conducted multivariable analysis for five postoperative factors (two local complications and three postoperative therapies) with adjustment for 19 baseline factors.

The study included 84,022 patients; 1547 (1.8%) received treatments for lymphedema during a median follow-up of 119 weeks (interquartile range, 59-187 weeks). Young age, obesity, smoking, collagen diseases, advanced cancer stage, total mastectomy, axillary dissection, postoperative bleeding, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy were identified as risk factors. Postoperative chemotherapy (hazard ratio, 3.78 [95% confidence interval, 3.35-4.26]) and axillary dissection (2.46 [1.95-3.11]) showed the highest odds ratio among the risk factors. The cumulative probabilities in high-risk patients reached approximately 3% at 1 year and 6% at 4 years after surgery.

This study identified several risk factors for postoperative lymphedema in breast cancer surgery. The treatment initiation increased markedly within the first year and gradually after 1 year post-surgery.

Predictive value of immune genomic signatures from breast cancer cohorts containing data for both response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and prognosis after surgery.

Breast Cancer

Previous studies of immune genomic signatures (IGSs) in breast cancer have attempted to predict the response to chemotherapy or prognosis and were performed using different patient cohorts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive functions of various IGSs using the same patient cohort that included data for response to chemotherapy as well as the prognosis after surgery.

We applied five previously described IGS models in a public dataset of 508 breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The prognostic and predictive values of each model were evaluated, and their correlations were compared.

We observed a high proportion of expression concordance among the IGS models (r: 0.56-1). Higher scores of IGSs were detected in aggressive breast cancer subtypes (basal and HER2-enriched) (P < 0.001). Four of the five IGSs could predict chemotherapy responses and two could predict 5-year relapse-free survival in cases with hormone receptor-positive (HR +) tumors. However, the models showed no significant differences in their predictive abilities for hormone receptor-negative (HR-) tumors.

IGSs are, to some extent, useful for predicting prognosis and chemotherapy response; moreover, they show substantial agreement for specific breast cancer subtypes. However, it is necessary to identify more compelling biomarkers for both prognosis and response to chemotherapy in HR- and HER2 + cases.

A novel ADC targeting cell surface fibromodulin in a mouse model of triple-negative breast cancer.

Breast Cancer

Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are highly aggressive and metastatic. To date, finding efficacious targeted therapy molecules might be the only window of hope to cure cancer. Fibromodulin (FMOD), is ectopically highly expressed on the surface of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) and bladder carcinoma cells; thus, it could be a promising molecule for targeted therapy of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate cell surface expression of FMOD in two TNBC cell lines and develop an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) to target FMOD positive TNBC in vitro and in vivo.

Two TNBC-derived cell lines 4T1 and MDA-MB-231 were used in this study. The specific binding of anti-FMOD monoclonal antibody (mAb) was evaluated by flow cytometry and its internalization was verified using phAb amine reactive dye. A microtubulin inhibitor Mertansine (DM1) was used for conjugation to anti-FMOD mAb. The binding efficacy of FMOD-ADC was assessed by immunocytochemistry technique. The anti-FMOD mAb and FMOD-ADC apoptosis induction were measured using Annexin V-FITC and flow cytometry. Tumor growth inhibition of anti-FMOD mAb and FMOD-ADC was evaluated using BALB/c mice injected with 4T1 cells.

Our results indicate that both anti-FMOD mAb and FMOD-ADC recognize cell surface FMOD molecules. FMOD-ADC could induce apoptosis in 4T1 and MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. In vivo tumor growth inhibition was observed using FMOD-ADC in 4T1 inoculated BALB/c mice.

Our results suggests high cell surface FMOD expression could be a novel bio-marker TNBCs. Furthermore, FMOD-ADC could be a promising candidate for targeting TNBCs.

Association of Prehospital Needle Decompression With Mortality Among Injured Patients Requiring Emergency Chest Decompression.

JAMA Surgery

Prehospital needle decompression (PHND) is a rare but potentially life-saving procedure. Prior studies on chest decompression in trauma patients have been small, limited to single institutions or emergency medical services (EMS) agencies, and lacked appropriate comparator groups, making the effectiveness of this intervention uncertain.

To determine the association of PHND with early mortality in patients requiring emergent chest decompression.

This was a retrospective cohort study conducted from January 1, 2000, to March 18, 2020, using the Pennsylvania Trauma Outcomes Study database. Patients older than 15 years who were transported from the scene of injury were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed between April 28, 2021, and September 18, 2021.

Patients without PHND but undergoing tube thoracostomy within 15 minutes of arrival at the trauma center were the comparison group that may have benefited from PHND.

Mixed-effect logistic regression was used to determine the variability in PHND between patient and EMS agency factors, as well as the association between risk-adjusted 24-hour mortality and PHND, accounting for clustering by center and year. Propensity score matching, instrumental variable analysis using EMS agency-level PHND proportion, and several sensitivity analyses were performed to address potential bias.

A total of 8469 patients were included in this study; 1337 patients (11%) had PHND (median [IQR] age, 37 [25-52] years; 1096 male patients [82.0%]), and 7132 patients (84.2%) had emergent tube thoracostomy (median [IQR] age, 32 [23-48] years; 6083 male patients [85.3%]). PHND rates were stable over the study period between 0.2% and 0.5%. Patient factors accounted for 43% of the variation in PHND rates, whereas EMS agency accounted for 57% of the variation. PHND was associated with a 25% decrease in odds of 24-hour mortality (odds ratio [OR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.61-0.94; P = .01). Similar results were found in patients who survived their ED stay (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.52-0.89; P < .01), excluding severe traumatic brain injury (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.45-0.95; P = .03), and restricted to patients with severe chest injury (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.55-0.93; P = .01). PHND was also associated with lower odds of 24-hour mortality after propensity matching (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.62-0.98; P = .04) when restricting matches to the same EMS agency (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56-0.99; P = .04) and in instrumental variable probit regression (coefficient, -0.60; 95% CI, -1.04 to -0.16; P < .01).

In this cohort study, PHND was associated with lower 24-hour mortality compared with emergent trauma center chest tube placement in trauma patients. Although performed rarely, PHND can be a life-saving intervention and should be reinforced in EMS education for appropriately selected trauma patients.