The latest medical research on Physiotherapist

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about physiotherapist gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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10-Year Prospective Clinical and Radiological Evaluation After Matrix-Induced Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation and Comparison of Tibiofemoral and Patellofemoral Graft Outcomes.

Am J Sports Med

Long-term outcomes in larger cohorts after matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) are required. Furthermore, little is known about the longer-term clinical and radiological outcomes of MACI performed in the tibiofemoral versus patellofemoral knee joint.

To present the 10-year clinical and radiological outcomes in patients after MACI and compare outcomes in patients undergoing tibiofemoral versus patellofemoral MACI.

Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Between September 2002 and December 2012, 204 patients who underwent MACI were prospectively registered into a research program and assessed preoperatively and at 2, 5, and 10 years postoperatively. Of these patients, 168 were available for clinical review at 10 years, with 151 (of a total of 182) grafts also assessed via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients were evaluated using the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, a visual analog scale for pain frequency and severity, satisfaction, and peak isokinetic knee extensor and flexor strength. Limb symmetry indices (LSIs) were calculated for strength measures. Grafts were scored on MRI scans via the MOCART (magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue) system, with a focus on tissue infill and an overall MRI graft composite score.

All patient-reported outcome measures improved (P < .0001) up to 2 years after surgery. Apart from the significant increase (P = .004) in the peak isokinetic knee extensor LSI, no other patient-reported outcome measure or clinical score had changed significantly from 2 to 10 years. At the final follow-up, 92% of patients were satisfied with MACI to provide knee pain relief, with 76% satisfied with their ability to participate in sports. From 2 to 10 years, no significant change was seen for any MRI-based MOCART variable nor the overall MRI composite score. Of the 151 grafts reviewed via MRI at 10 years, 14 (9.3%) had failed, defined by graft delamination or no graft tissue on MRI scan. Furthermore, of the 36 patients (of the prospectively recruited 204) who were not available for longer-term review, 7 had already proceeded to total knee arthroplasty, and 1 patient had undergone secondary MACI at the same medial femoral condylar site because of an earlier graft failure. Therefore, 22 patients (10.8%) essentially had graft failure over the period. At the final follow-up, patients who underwent MACI in the tibiofemoral (vs patellofemoral) joint reported significantly better Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subscale scores for Quality of Life (P = .010) and Sport and Recreation (P < .001), as well as a greater knee extensor strength LSI (P = .002). Even though the tibiofemoral group demonstrated better 10-year MOCART scores for tissue infill (P = .027), there were no other MRI-based differences (P > .05).

This study reports the long-term review of a prospective series of patients undergoing MACI, demonstrating good clinical scores, high levels of patient satisfaction, and acceptable graft survivorship at 10 years. Patients undergoing tibiofemoral (vs patellofemoral) MACI reported better long-term clinical outcomes, despite largely similar MRI-based outcomes.

Distal Tibial Allograft for the Treatment of Anterior Shoulder Instability With Glenoid Bone Loss: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Am J Sports Med

The use of a distal tibial allograft (DTA) for reconstruction of a glenoid defect in anterior shoulder instability has grown significantly over the past decade. However, few large-scale clinical studies have investigated the clinical and radiographic outcomes of the DTA procedure.

To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical studies with data on outcomes and complications in patients who underwent the DTA procedure for recurrent anterior shoulder instability with glenoid bone loss.

Systematic review and meta-analysis; Level of evidence, 4.

A comprehensive search of major bibliographic databases was conducted for articles pertaining to the use of a DTA for the management of anterior shoulder instability with associated glenoid bone loss. Postoperative complications and outcomes were extracted and compiled in a meta-analysis.

Of the 8 included studies with 329 total participants, the mean patient age was 28.1 ± 10.8 years, 192 (83.8%) patients were male, and the mean follow-up was 38.4 ± 20.5 months. The overall complication rate was 7.1%, with hardware complications (3.8%) being the most common. Partial graft resorption was observed in 36.5% of the participants. Recurrent subluxation was reported in 1.2% of the participants, and recurrent dislocation prompting a reoperation was noted in 0.3% of the participants. There were significant improvements in clinical outcomes, including American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score (40.9-point increase; P < .01), Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (47.2-point increase; P < .01), Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (49.4-point decrease; P < .01), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (20.0-point decrease; P = .03), and visual analog scale (2.1-point decrease; P = .05). Additionally, postoperative shoulder range of motion significantly increased from baseline values.

The DTA procedure was associated with a low complication rate, good clinical outcomes, and improved range of motion among patients with anterior shoulder instability and associated glenoid defects.

Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Lateral Compartment Articular Cartilage After Lateral Extra-articular Tenodesis.

Am J Sports Med

Concerns have arisen that anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) with lateral extra-articular tenodesis (LET) may accelerate the development of posttraumatic osteoarthritis in the lateral compartment of the knee.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the augmentation of ACLR with LET affects the quality of lateral compartment articular cartilage on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2 years postoperatively. We hypothesized that there would be no difference in T1rho and T2 relaxation times when comparing ACLR alone with ACLR + LET.

Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1.

A consecutive subgroup of patients at the Fowler Kennedy Sport Medicine Clinic participating in the STABILITY 1 Study underwent bilateral 3-T MRI at 2 years after surgery. The primary outcome was T1rho and T2 relaxation times. Articular cartilage in the lateral compartment was manually segmented into 3 regions of the tibia (lateral tibia [LT]-1 to LT-3) and 5 regions of the femur (lateral femoral condyle [LFC]-1 to LFC-5). Analysis of covariance was used to compare relaxation times between groups, adjusted for lateral meniscal tears and treatment, cartilage and bone marrow lesions, contralateral relaxation times, and time since surgery. Semiquantitative MRI scores according to the Anterior Cruciate Ligament OsteoArthritis Score were compared between groups. Correlations were used to determine the association between secondary outcomes (including results of the International Knee Documentation Committee score, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Lower Extremity Functional Scale, 4-Item Pain Intensity Measure, hop tests, and isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring strength tests) and cartilage relaxation.

A total of 95 participants (44 ACLR alone, 51 ACLR + LET) with a mean age of 18.8 years (61.1% female [58/95]) underwent 2-year MRI (range, 20-36 months). T1rho relaxation times were significantly elevated for the ACLR + LET group in LT-1 (37.3 ± 0.7 ms vs 34.1 ± 0.8 ms, respectively; P = .005) and LFC-2 (43.9 ± 0.9 ms vs 40.2 ± 1.0 ms, respectively; P = .008) compared with the ACLR alone group. T2 relaxation times were significantly elevated for the ACLR + LET group in LFC-1 (51.2 ± 0.7 ms vs 49.1 ± 0.7 ms, respectively; P = .03) and LFC-4 (45.9 ± 0.5 ms vs 44.2 ± 0.6 ms, respectively; P = .04) compared with the ACLR alone group. All effect sizes were small to medium. There was no difference in Anterior Cruciate Ligament OsteoArthritis Scores between groups (P = .99). Weak negative associations (rs = -0.27 to -0.22; P < .05) were found between relaxation times and quadriceps and hamstring strength in the anterolateral knee, while all other correlations were nonsignificant (P > .05).

Increased relaxation times demonstrating small to medium effect sizes suggested early biochemical changes in articular cartilage of the anterolateral compartment in the ACLR + LET group compared with the ACLR alone group. Further evidence and long-term follow-up are needed to better understand the association between these results and the potential risk of the development of osteoarthritis in our patient cohort.

Clinical and Functional Outcomes of Suture Versus Headless Screw Fixation for Tibial Eminence Fractures in Children.

Am J Sports Med

Suture and screw fixations are widely used to treat tibial eminence fractures (TEFs). Although a few biomechanical and clinical studies have compared suture fixation (SF) and screw fixation in the treatment of TEFs in children, no comparative clinical studies are available regarding headless screw fixation (HSF).

To evaluate the clinical and functional outcomes of children with TEF who underwent SF and HSF.

Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

The study included 24 patients treated with either SF (11 patients) or HSF (13 patients) within 1 month of TEF (type 2 or 3) without associated ligamentous and bone injury between 2015 and 2020. All patients were evaluated at a minimum 2-year follow-up in terms of Lysholm score, Tegner activity level, International Knee Documentation Committee subjective score, and isometric strength test. Knee stability was compared based on the Lachman test, pivot-shift test, and KT-1000 arthrometer side-to-side difference.

No significant differences were found between the 2 groups in terms of Lysholm score, Tegner activity level, and International Knee Documentation Committee subjective score at follow-up. All patients were able to resume their daily activities within 6 months after the injury. However, flexion deficits (6°-10°) were found in 2 patients in the SF group and 1 patient in the HSF group, and extension deficits (3°-5°) were found in 3 patients in the SF group and 1 patient in the HSF group, without significant intergroup difference. Stability based on the Lachman test, pivot-shift test, and KT-1000 arthrometer side-to-side difference was also similar between the 2 groups at follow-up. No statistically significant difference was found between the 2 groups in isometric tests performed.

The present study is the first to compare the clinical and functional results of SF and HSF techniques. The HSF technique demonstrated comparable clinical and functional outcomes, suggesting its potential as an alternative to the SF technique.

The Influence of Tibial Tubercle-Sparing Slope-Reducing Osteotomy on Patellar Height in Patients Undergoing Revision ACL Reconstruction.

Am J Sports Med

A posterior tibial slope (PTS) >12° is an independent risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft rupture, and a high tibial osteotomy (HTO) for slope correction can help avoid it. Management of patellar height is of major concern when performing HTO.

To evaluate the effect of tibial tubercle-sparing anterior closing-wedge osteotomy on patellar height in revision ACL reconstruction (ACLR).

Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Patients who underwent arthroscopic revision ACLR combined with retro-tibial tubercle anterior closing-wedge HTO (ACW-HTO) between January 1, 2016, and March 31, 2021, were assessed for eligibility. Patellar height was measured on full weightbearing lateral radiographs according to the Insall-Salvati index (ISI) and Caton-Deschamps index (CDI) or frontal radiographs using the femoral patellar height index. The PTS was evaluated using the proximal anatomic axis of the tibia on standard short lateral radiographs. The delta (postoperative - preoperative) and the ratio (preoperative/postoperative) of the 3 patellar height indices and PTS were calculated. Preoperative and postoperative patellar heights were compared using independent t tests for each index. Also investigated was whether patients changed patellar height category (baja, normal, or alta) after slope osteotomy.

Among 475 revision ACLRs, 47 tibial tubercle-sparing ACW-HTOs were retained for analysis. No significant difference in patellar height was found between pre- and postoperative radiographs regardless of the index (preoperative - postoperative) (ISI: 1.0 ± 0.2 - 0.9 ± 0.2, P = .1729; CDI: 1.0 ± 0.2 - 1.0 ± 0.2, P = .4034; femoral patellar height index: 1.5 ± 0.2 - 1.5 ± 0.2; P = .5130). Fifteen patients (31.9%) exhibited a postoperative change in their patellar height category when measured by the ISI (6 moved up a category, 9 moved down one), and 18 patients (38.3%) changed category according to the CDI (10 moved up a category, 8 moved down one). No significant difference was found between pre- and postoperative patellar height among these patients (ISI: P = .2418; CDI: P = .3005).

Changes in patellar height ratio are common after tibial tubercle-sparing ACW-HTO in patients undergoing revision ACLR. The clinical effect of these changes is unknown, and further study is needed to investigate whether they may result in patellofemoral symptoms.

Differences in Clinical Outcomes Between Patients With Retear After Supraspinatus Tendon Repair and Those With Intact Repair at 5-Year Follow-up.

Am J Sports Med

It is well known that rotator cuff repair is associated with an overall retear rate of 21% to 26%. However, a cuff retear may not necessarily be associated with poor clinical outcomes.

There would be no difference in clinical outcomes between patients with a cuff retear and those with an intact repair at a midterm follow-up of 5 years.

Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

A retrospective study was conducted involving patients who received arthroscopic complete repair of the supraspinatus tendon between January 2009 and December 2017. Patients who did not have a postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan or who had a follow-up of <5 years were excluded. Clinical outcomes, including the visual analog scale (VAS) score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and active forward flexion (FF) of the involved shoulder were assessed at the 2-year and 5-year follow-up points.

The study group included 105 patients with a mean follow-up of 85 months. MRI scans were performed at a mean of 20 months. Fourteen full-thickness cuff retears and 91 intact repairs were identified using postoperative MRI scans. Significant improvement in VAS score, ASES score, and FF were found between the preoperative assessment and the 2 designated follow-up points (2 years and 5 years) in both the cuff retear and the intact repair groups (P < .001). The VAS and ASES scores at the 2-year follow-up for the intact repair group were 1.8 ± 2.0 and 80.7 ± 18.1, respectively. The corresponding values for the retear group were 2.3 ± 2.2 and 71.9 ± 19.5, respectively. No significant difference was found between the 2 groups in the VAS and ASES scores at the 2-year follow-up. However, patients with an intact repair had a better VAS score (1.4 ± 1.8; P = .049) and ASES score (81.7 ± 17; P = .019) than those with a cuff retear at the 5-year assessment (3.0 ± 2.8 and 67.1 ± 22.9, respectively). In the intact repair group, 91% of patients achieved the minimal clinically important difference for the 5-year VAS score, compared with 54% in the cuff retear group (P < .001). The corresponding values for the 5-year ASES score were 80% and 54%, respectively (P = .044). FF measurements at the 5-year follow-up in patients with intact repair and those with a cuff retear were 161°± 23° and 144°± 37°, respectively (P = .059). Continuous improvement in VAS score and FF between the 2-year and 5-year follow-up was observed in the intact repair group (P = .005 and P = .04, respectively).

The patients with an intact repair had better VAS and ASES scores compared with those who had a cuff retear at a midterm follow-up of 5 years. Between the 2-year and the 5-year follow-up, some further improvement was observed in the VAS score and FF in the intact repair group.

Association between cognitive dysfunction and diabetes in patients over 65 years old: a cross-sectional study using propensity score matching.

Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine

To investigate the association between diabetes and cognitive dysfunction in the elderly population, and examine the impact of cognitive dysfunction on level of activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with diabetes.

Data analysis was conducted on 2,951 individuals aged over 65 years from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey cohort. Propensity score matching was utilized to mitigate selection bias. Multivariate binary logistic regression was performed to analyse the association between diabetes and cognitive dysfunction in the study subjects. In addition, the relationship between ADL and cognitive function in patients with diabetes was analysed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test.

A significant association (p = 0.017) was found between diabetes and the occurrence of cognitive dysfunction in older adults. Subgroup analyses revealed that diabetes patients with cognitive dysfunction exhibited a worse ADL dependence compared with those without cognitive dysfunction (p < 0.001).

These findings indicate that diabetes is associated with cognitive dysfunction in older adults. Meanwhile, there is an association between cognitive impairment and ADL level in subjects with diabetes. As such, healthcare professionals should pay close attention to the occurrence of cognitive dysfunction and ADL decline during diagnosis and treatment, and proactive prevention and intervention strategies should be implemented.

Identifying profiles of stroke patients benefitting from additional training: a latent class analysis approach.

Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine

To identify profiles of stroke patient benefitting from additional training, using latent class analysis.

The main outcome measure was the difference in Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores between admission and discharge (referred to as "gain"). The effect of additional training, categorized as usual care (no additional training), self-exercise, training with hospital staff, or both exercise (combining self-exercise and training with hospital staff), was assessed through multiple regression analyses of latent classes.

Applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 1185 patients were classified into 7 latent classes based on their admission characteristics (class size n = 82 (7%) to n = 226 (19%)). Patients with class 2 characteristics (right hemiparesis and modified dependence in the motor-FIM and cognitive-FIM) had positive FIM gain with additional training (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.49-3.29; p < 0.01). One-way analysis of variance revealed that training with hospital staff (95% CI 0.07-16.94; p < 0.05) and both exercises (95% CI 5.38-15.13; p < 0.01) led to a significantly higher mean FIM gain than after usual care.

Additional training in patients with stroke with right hemiparesis and modified dependence in activities of daily living was shown to improve activities of daily living. Training with hospital staff combined with self-exercise is a promising rehabilitation strategy for these patients.

Applying models of care for total hip and knee arthroplasty: External validation of a published predictive model to identify extended stay risk prior to lower-limb arthroplasty.

Clinical Rehabilitation

This study aimed to externally validate a reported model for identifying patients requiring extended stay following lower limb arthroplasty in a new setting.

Model validation was assessed with discrimination, calibration on both original and adjusted forms of the candidate model. Decision curve analysis was conducted on the outputs of the adjusted model to determine net benefit at a predetermined decision threshold (0.5).

The original model performed poorly, grossly overestimating length of stay with mean calibration of -3.6 (95% confidence interval -3.9 to -3.2) and calibration slope of 0.52. Performance improved following adjustment of the model intercept and model coefficients (mean calibration 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.16 to 0.80 and slope of 1.0), but remained poorly calibrated at low and medium risk threshold and net benefit was modest (three additional patients per hundred identified as at-risk) at the a-priori risk threshold.

External validation demonstrated poor performance when applied to a new patient population and would provide limited benefit for our institution. Implementation of predictive models for arthroplasty should include practical assessment of discrimination, calibration and net benefit at a clinically acceptable threshold.

'Considering the reality, I am very lucky': how professional players and staff perceive injury prevention and performance protection in women's football.

Brit J Sports Med

To explore the beliefs and perceptions of professional female footballers and staff regarding injury prevention and performance protection in professional women's football.

This qualitative study applied semistructured interviews with 18 participants from 3 top-tier teams from 2 countries (Portugal and England) and 4 nationalities, including 2 physiotherapists, 5 players, 3 team doctors, 2 head coaches, 3 strength and conditioning coaches, 2 managers, and 1 head of performance. Data analysis applied constant comparison analysis, using principles of grounded theory. There were no major differences in the perspectives of players and staff, and the findings are presented together.

Identifying and reporting injuries and recognising potential injury risk factors were mentioned to influence the prevention of injury. Participants stated that the growth and evolution of women's football could influence injury risk. Before reaching the professional level, exposure to potential risk factors, such as lack of recovery, limited awareness and opportunities for prevention (eg, preventive exercises and load management strategies), was believed to impact players' injury risk. Players further described their experiences and the 'bumpy road' to becoming a professional player, their current context and potential future improvements for women's football regarding injury prevention and performance protection.

Professional female football players face different injury risks during different moments of their careers. According to elite players and staff, amateur and semiprofessionals have limited resources and lack injury prevention strategies. Professional players and staff perceived the current preventive measures as good and relied on the value of individualised care and a multidisciplinary approach. In the future, more resources and structured injury prevention strategies are needed in youth and non-professional levels of women's football to reduce injury risk and allow more players to reach their maximal performance.

Gait biomechanics do not differ between adolescents with and without patellofemoral pain.

Scandinavian J Med Sci Sports

To determine if adolescents with patellofemoral pain exhibit different biomechanical characteristics to asymptomatic adolescents during walking and running.

Twenty-eight adolescents with patellofemoral pain (16 male, 12 female, mean [SD] age: 14.3 [1.7] years) and 24 asymptomatic adolescents (13 male, 11 female, mean [SD] age: 14.1 [1.6] years) participated. Participants walked and ran on an instrumented treadmill in a standardized athletic shoe. Continuous hip, knee, and ankle joint angles and moments, and frontal plane pelvic motion were compared between groups using one-dimensional statistical parametric mapping independent t-tests (alpha <0.05). Cadence and stride length were compared between groups using independent t-tests.

During walking, adolescents with patellofemoral pain had a higher hip extension moment at 7%-8% of the gait cycle (p = 0.04) and walked with a shorter stride length (mean difference [95% confidence interval] = -0.07 [-0.1, -0.01] m). There were no other differences between groups during walking. During running, adolescents with patellofemoral pain had greater knee flexion than asymptomatic adolescents at 35%-40% of the gait cycle (p = 0.04) and ran with a higher cadence (mean difference [95% confidence interval] = 5.8 [2.0, 9.5] steps/min). There were no other statistically significant differences between groups during running.

Adolescents with patellofemoral pain demonstrate few biomechanical differences to asymptomatic adolescents during walking and running. The identified differences are likely of limited clinical importance. Biomechanical alterations which have been previously associated with patellofemoral pain in adults, may not need to be the target of management of adolescent patellofemoral pain.

Towards a core outcome set for dysarthria after stroke: What should we measure?

Clinical Rehabilitation

To identify and agree on what outcome domains should be measured in research and clinical practice when working with stroke survivors who have dysarthria.

Initial list of outcome domains generated from existing literature and with our patient and public involvement group to develop the survey. Participants completed two rounds of this survey to rate importance. Outcomes were identified as 'in', 'unclear' or 'out' from the second survey. All participants were invited to two consensus meetings to discuss these results followed by voting to identify critically important outcome domains for a future Core Outcome Set. All outcomes were voted on in the consensus meetings and included if 70% of meeting participants voted 'yes' for critically important.

In total, 148 surveys were fully completed, and 28 participants attended the consensus meetings. A core outcome set for dysarthria after stroke should include four outcome domains: (a) intelligibility of speech, (b) ability to participate in conversations, (c) living well with dysarthria, (d) skills and knowledge of communication partners (where relevant).

We describe the consensus of 'what' speech outcomes after stroke are valued by all stakeholders including those with lived experience. We share these findings to encourage the measurement of these domains in clinical practice and research and for future research to identify 'how' best to measure these outcomes.