The latest medical research on Physiotherapist

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Its not all about sprinting: mechanisms of acute hamstring strain injuries in professional male rugby union-a systematic visual video analysis.

Brit J Sports Med

The mechanisms of hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) in professional Rugby Union are not well understood. The aim of this study was to describe the mechanisms of HSIs in male professional Rugby Union players using video analysis.

All time-loss acute HSIs identified via retrospective analysis of the Leinster Rugby injury surveillance database across the 2015/2016 to 2017/2018 seasons were considered as potentially eligible for inclusion. Three chartered physiotherapists (analysts) independently assessed all videos with a consensus meeting convened to describe the injury mechanisms. The determination of the injury mechanisms was based on an inductive process informed by a critical review of HSI mechanism literature (including kinematics, kinetics and muscle activity). One of the analysts also developed a qualitative description of each injury mechanism.

Seventeen acute HSIs were included in this study. Twelve per cent of the injuries were sustained during training with the remainder sustained during match-play. One HSI occurred due to direct contact to the injured muscle. The remainder were classified as indirect contact (ie, contact to another body region) or non-contact. These HSIs were sustained during five distinct actions-'running' (47%), 'decelerating' (18%), 'kicking' (6%), during a 'tackle' (6%) and 'rucking' (18%). The most common biomechanical presentation of the injured limb was characterised by trunk flexion with concomitant active knee extension (76%). Fifty per cent of cases also involved ipsilateral trunk rotation.

HSIs in this study of Rugby Union were sustained during a number of playing situations and not just during sprinting. We identified a number of injury mechanisms including: 'running', 'decelerating', 'kicking', 'tackle', 'rucking' and 'direct trauma'. Hamstring muscle lengthening, characterised by trunk flexion and relative knee extension, appears to be a fundamental characteristic of the mechanisms of acute HSIs in Rugby Union.

Suspensory Versus Interference Tibial Fixation of Hamstring Tendon Autografts in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Results From the New Zealand ACL Registry.

Am J Sports Med

The hamstring tendon is frequently used to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), but there is a lack of consensus on the optimal method of fixation. Registry studies have shown that the type of femoral fixation device can influence the risk of revision ACL reconstruction (ACLR), but it is unclear whether the type of tibial fixation has an effect. In New Zealand, over 95% of hamstring tendon grafts are fixed with an adjustable loop suspensory device on the femoral side, with variable usage between suspensory and interference devices, with or without a sheath, on the tibial side.

To investigate the association between the type of tibial fixation device and the risk of revision ACLR.

Cohort Study; Level of evidence, 2.

Prospective data recorded in the New Zealand ACL Registry were analyzed. Only primary ACLRs performed with a hamstring tendon autograft fixed with a suspensory device on the femoral side were included. A Cox regression survival analysis with adjustment for patient factors was performed to analyze the effects of the type of tibial fixation device, the number of graft strands, and graft diameter on the risk of revision.

A total of 6145 primary ACLRs performed between 2014 and 2019 were analyzed. A total of 59.6% of hamstring tendon autografts were fixed with a suspensory device on the tibial side (n = 3662), 17.6% with an interference screw with a sheath (n = 1079), and 22.8% with an interference screw without a sheath (n = 1404). When compared with suspensory devices, a higher revision risk was observed when using an interference screw with a sheath (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.05; P = .009) and without a sheath (adjusted HR, 1.81; P = .044). The number of graft strands and a graft diameter of ≥8 mm were associated with the rate of revision on the univariate analysis; however, after adjusting for confounding variables on the multivariate analysis, they did not significantly influence the risk of revision.

In this study of hamstring tendon autografts fixed with an adjustable loop suspensory device on the femoral side during primary ACLR, the use of an interference screw, with or without a sheath, on the tibial side resulted in a higher revision rate when compared with a suspensory device.

Comparison of Autologous Osteoperiosteal and Osteochondral Transplantation for the Treatment of Large, Medial Cystic Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus.

Am J Sports Med

Autologous osteoperiosteal transplantation (AOPT) using graft harvested from the iliac crest is used to treat large cystic osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLTs). However, no studies have compared clinical and radiologic outcomes between AOPT and autologous osteochondral transplantation (AOCT) using graft harvested from the nonweightbearing zone of the femoral condyle of the ipsilateral knee in patients with large cystic OLTs.

To compare clinical and radiologic outcomes between patients undergoing AOPT and those undergoing AOCT for large cystic OLTs.

Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Between March 2015 and March 2018, patients who underwent AOCT and AOPT to treat medial large cystic OLTs (>10 mm) were retrospectively evaluated. For comparability, the 2 groups were matched 1:1 based on their characteristics, including sex, age, body mass index, side of injury, follow-up period, and the preoperative cyst volume. After propensity score matching, 23 patients were enrolled in each group for the analysis. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS), the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, and the Tegner score. Donor-site morbidity was recorded according to the symptoms, including pain, stiffness, swelling, and discomfort. In addition, the Lysholm score was used to assess the most common knee donor-site morbidity. Radiologic outcomes were evaluated using the magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score, and the International Cartilage Regeneration & Joint Preservation Society (ICRS) score was obtained during second-look surgery.

The mean follow-up period was about 48 months. There were no significant differences in patient characteristics and lesion volumes between groups. Postoperative ankle pain VAS score, AOFAS score, and Tegner score were not significantly different between groups at final follow-up. Total donor-site morbidity (P = .004) and discomfort morbidity (P = .009) were significantly lower in the AOPT group than in the AOCT group. However, the Lysholm score showed no significant difference between the donor knee and the opposite knee (P = .503) in the AOCT group. The MOCART and ICRS scores were not significantly different between groups.

Clinical and radiologic outcomes of patients who underwent AOPT from the iliac crest were found to be comparable with those of patients who underwent AOCT from the ipsilateral knee for the treatment of medial large cystic OLTs. These results may be helpful for orthopaedic surgeons to decide appropriate treatments for patients with large cystic OLTs.

Why, When, and in Which Patients Nonoperative Treatment of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Fails: An Exploratory Analysis of the COMPARE Trial.

Am J Sports Med

The optimal treatment strategy for patients with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is still under debate. Different determinants of the need for a reconstruction have not been thoroughly investigated before.

To investigate why, when, and which patients with an ACL rupture who initially started with rehabilitation therapy required reconstructive surgery.

Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3.

In the Conservative versus Operative Methods for Patients with ACL Rupture Evaluation (COMPARE) trial, 167 patients with an ACL rupture were randomized to early ACL reconstruction or rehabilitation therapy plus optional delayed ACL reconstruction. We conducted an exploratory analysis of a subgroup of 82 patients from this trial who were randomized to rehabilitation therapy plus optional delayed ACL reconstruction. The reasons for surgery were registered for the patients who underwent a delayed ACL reconstruction. For these patients, we used the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee form, Numeric Rating Scale for pain, and instability question from the Lysholm questionnaire before surgery. To determine between-group differences between the nonoperative treatment and delayed ACL reconstruction group, IKDC and pain scores during follow-up were determined using mixed models and adjusted for sex, age, and body mass index.

During the 2-year follow-up of the trial, 41 of the 82 patients received a delayed ACL reconstruction after a median time of 6.4 months after inclusion (interquartile range, 3.9-10.3 months). Most reconstructions occurred between 3 and 6 months after inclusion (n = 17; 41.5%). Ninety percent of the patients (n = 37) reported knee instability concerns as a reason for surgery at the moment of planning surgery. Of these patients, 18 had an IKDC score ≤60, 29 had a pain score of ≥3, and 33 patients had knee instability concerns according to the Lysholm questionnaire before surgery. During follow-up, IKDC scores were lower and pain scores were higher in the delayed reconstruction group compared with the nonoperative treatment group. Patients in the delayed reconstruction group had a significantly younger age (27.4 vs 35.3 years; P = .001) and higher preinjury activity level compared with patients in the nonoperative treatment group.

Patients who experienced instability concerns, had pain during activity, and had a low perception of their knee function had unsuccessful nonoperative treatment. Most patients received a delayed ACL reconstruction after 3 to 6 months of rehabilitation therapy. At baseline, patients who required reconstructive surgery had a younger age and higher preinjury activity level compared with patients who did not undergo reconstruction.

Arthroscopic Latarjet: 2 or 4 Cortical Buttons for Coracoid Fixation? A Case-Control Comparative Study.

Am J Sports Med

While 2 screws are traditionally used for coracoid bone block fixation, no gold standard technique has yet been established when using cortical buttons.

To compare anatomic and clinical outcomes of the arthroscopic Latarjet procedure using either 2 or 4 buttons for coracoid bone block fixation.

Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

A total of 23 patients with 4-button fixation (group 4B) were matched for age at surgery, sex, and follow-up to 46 patients who had 2-button fixation (group 2B). All patients underwent guided arthroscopic Latarjet (using coracoid and glenoid guides), and a tensioning device was used to rigidify the suture button construct and get intraoperative bone block compression. The primary outcome was assessment of bone block positioning and healing using computed tomography scans performed at 2 weeks and at least 6 months after surgery. The mean ± standard deviation follow-up was 49 ± 7 months (range, 24-64 months).

The bone block healing rate was similar in both groups: 91% in group 4B versus 95.5% in group 2B. The transferred coracoid was flush to the glenoid surface in 21 patients (91%) in group 4B and 44 patients (96%) in group 2B (P = .6); it was under the equator in 22 patients (96%) in group 4B and 44 patients (96%) in group 2B (P≥ .99). There was no secondary bone block displacement; the rate of bone block resorption was similar between the groups: 28% in group 4B and 23% in group 2B (P = .71). Patient-reported outcomes, return to sports, and satisfaction were also similar between the groups. The operating time was significantly longer in group 4B (95 vs 75 minutes; P = .009).

A 4-button fixation technique did not demonstrate any anatomic or clinical advantages when compared with a 2-button fixation technique, while making the procedure more complex and lengthening the operating time by 20 minutes. A 2-button fixation is simple, safe, and sufficient to solidly fix the transferred coracoid bone block. The use of drill guides allows accurate graft placement, while the use of a tensioning device to rigidify the suture button construct provides high rates of bone block healing with both techniques (>90%).

Comparison of the Coracoid, Distal Clavicle, and Scapular Spine for Autograft Augmentation of Glenoid Bone Loss: A Radiologic and Cadaveric Assessment.

Am J Sports Med

Glenohumeral instability caused by bone loss requires adequate bony restoration for successful surgical stabilization. Coracoid transfer has been the gold standard bone graft; however, it has high complication rates. Alternative autologous free bone grafts, which include the distal clavicle and scapular spine, have been suggested.

Controlled laboratory study.

The purpose of this study was to determine the percentage of glenoid bone loss (GBL) restored via coracoid, distal clavicle, and scapular spine bone grafts using a patient cohort and a cadaveric evaluation.

Autologous bone graft dimensions from a traditional Latarjet, congruent arc Latarjet, distal clavicle, and scapular spine were measured in a 2-part study using 52 computed tomography (CT) scans and 10 unmatched cadaveric specimens. The amount of GBL restored using each graft was calculated by comparing the graft thickness with the glenoid diameter.

Using CT measurements, we found the mean percentage of glenoid restoration for each graft was 49.5% ± 6.7% (traditional Latarjet), 45.1% ± 4.9% (congruent arc Latarjet), 42.2% ± 7.7% (distal clavicle), and 26.2% ± 8.1% (scapular spine). Using cadaveric measurements, we found the mean percentage of glenoid restoration for each graft was 40.2% ± 5.0% (traditional Latarjet), 53.4% ± 4.7% (congruent arc Latarjet), 45.6% ± 8.4% (distal clavicle), and 28.2% ± 7.7% (scapular spine). With 10% GBL, 100% of the coracoid and distal clavicle grafts, as well as 88% of scapular spine grafts, could restore the defect (P < .001). With 20% GBL, 100% of the coracoid and distal clavicle grafts but only 66% of scapular spine grafts could restore the defect (P < .001). With 30% GBL, 100% of coracoid grafts, 98% of distal clavicle grafts, and 28% of scapular spine grafts could restore the defect (P < .001). With 40% GBL, a significant difference was identified (P = .001), as most coracoid grafts still provided adequate restoration (congruent arc Latarjet, 82.7%; traditional Latarjet, 76.9%), but distal clavicle grafts were markedly reduced, with only 51.9% of grafts maintaining sufficient dimensions.

The coracoid and distal clavicle grafts reliably restored up to 30% GBL in nearly all patients. The coracoid was the only graft that could reliably restore up to 40% GBL.

With "subcritical" GBL (>13.5%), all autologous bone grafts can be used to adequately restore the bony defect. However, with "critical" GBL (≥20%), only the coracoid and distal clavicle can reliably restore the bony defect.

Changes in the Synovial Fluid Cytokine Profile of the Knee Between an Acute Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury and Surgical Reconstruction.

Am J Sports Med

Changes in the intra-articular inflammatory state during the immediate period after an acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture are not well defined.

To evaluate changes in the concentration of select proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory synovial fluid cytokines during the interval between an ACL injury and surgical reconstruction.

Descriptive laboratory study.

In patients with an acute ACL injury, a synovial fluid sample was obtained from the injured knee during the initial office visit within 2 weeks of the inciting traumatic event. An additional synovial fluid sample was collected at the time of ACL reconstruction just before the surgical incision. Synovial fluid samples from both the acute injury and the surgery time points were processed with a protease inhibitor, and the concentrations of 10 cytokines of interest were measured using a multiplex magnetic bead immunoassay. The primary outcome was the change in cytokine concentrations between time points.

A total of 20 patients with a mean age of 30.2 ± 8.3 years were included. The acute injury synovial fluid samples were collected at 6.6 ± 3.8 days after the injury. The surgical synovial fluid samples were collected at 31.6 ± 15.6 days after the acute injury samples. Based on a series of linear mixed-effects models to control for the effect of concomitant meniscal injuries and by-patient variability, there was a statistically significant increase in the concentrations of RANTES and bFGF and a statistically significant decrease in the concentrations of IL-6, MCP-1, MIP-1β, TIMP-1, IL-1Ra, and VEGF between time points.

This study demonstrates the ongoing alterations in the intra-articular microenvironment during the initial inflammatory response in the acute postinjury period. We identified 6 synovial fluid cytokines that significantly decreased and 2 that significantly increased between the first clinical presentation shortly after the injury and the time of surgery 1 month later.

This study describes the molecular profile of the inflammatory changes between the time of an acute ACL injury and the time of surgical reconstruction 1 month later. A greater understanding of the acute inflammatory response within the knee may be helpful in identifying the optimal timing for a surgical intervention that balances the risk of chondral damage with the likelihood of successful, well-healed reconstruction.

Risk Factors for Failure After Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation of the Knee: A Systematic Review and Exploratory Meta-analysis.

Am J Sports Med

Graft failure after osteochondral allograft transplantation (OCA) of the knee is a devastating outcome, often necessitating subsequent interventions. A comprehensive understanding of the risk factors for failure after OCA of the knee may provide enhanced prognostic data for the knee surgeon and facilitate more informed shared decision-making discussions before surgery.

To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of risk factors associated with graft failure after OCA of the knee.

Systematic review and meta-analysis; Level of evidence, 4.

The PubMed, Ovid/MEDLINE, and Cochrane databases were queried in April 2021. Data pertaining to study characteristics and risk factors associated with failure after OCA were recorded. DerSimonian-Laird binary random-effects models were constructed to quantitatively evaluate the association between risk factors and graft failure by generating effect estimates in the form of odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs, while mean differences (MDs) were calculated for continuous data. Qualitative analysis was performed to describe risk factors that were variably reported.

A total of 16 studies consisting of 1401 patients were included. The overall pooled prevalence of failure was 18.9% (range, 10%-46%). There were 44 risk factors identified, of which 9 were explored quantitatively. There was strong evidence to support that the presence of bipolar chondral defects (OR, 4.20 [95% CI, 1.17-15.08]; P = .028) and male sex (OR, 2.04 [95% CI, 1.17-3.55]; P = .012) were significant risk factors for failure after OCA. Older age (MD, 5.06 years [95% CI, 1.44-8.70]; P = .006) and greater body mass index (MD, 1.75 kg/m2 [95% CI, 0.48-3.03]; P = .007) at the time of surgery were also significant risk factors for failure after OCA. There was no statistically significant evidence to incontrovertibly support that concomitant procedures, chondral defect size, and defect location were associated with an increased risk of failure after OCA.

Bipolar chondral defects, male sex, older age, and greater body mass index were significantly associated with an increased failure rate after OCA of the knee. No statistically significant evidence presently exists to support that chondral defect size and location or concomitant procedures are associated with an increased graft failure rate after OCA of the knee. Additional studies are needed to evaluate these associations.

Spatiotemporal and Ground-Reaction Force Characteristics as Risk Factors for Running-Related Injury: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Trial Including 800+ Recreational Runners.

Am J Sports Med

Running biomechanics may play a role in running-related injury development, but to date, only a few modifiable factors have been prospectively associated with injury risk.

To identify risk factors among spatiotemporal and ground-reaction force characteristics in recreational runners and to investigate whether shoe cushioning modifies the association between running biomechanics and injury risk.

Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3.

Recreational runners (N = 848) were tested on an instrumented treadmill at their preferred running speed in randomly allocated, standardized running shoes (with either hard or soft cushioning). Typical kinetic and spatiotemporal metrics were derived from ground-reaction force recordings. Participants were subsequently followed up for 6 months regarding running activity and injury. Cox regression models for competing risk were used to investigate the association between biomechanical risk factors and injury risk, including stratified analyses by shoe version.

In the crude analysis, greater injury risk was found for greater step length (subhazard rate ratio [SHR], 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.02; P = .038), longer flight time (SHR, 1.00; 95% CI, 1.00-1.01; P = .028), shorter contact time (SHR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.99-1.00; P = .030), and lower duty factor (defined as the ratio between contact time and stride time; SHR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91-0.98; P = .005). In the stratified analyses by shoe version, adjusted for previous injury and running speed, lower duty factor was associated with greater injury risk in those using the soft shoes (SHR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85-0.99; P = .042) but not in those using the hard shoes (SHR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.91-1.04; P = .348).

Lower duty factor is an injury risk factor, especially for softer shoe use. Contrary to widespread beliefs, vertical impact peak, loading rate, and step rate were not injury risk factors in recreational runners.

NCT03115437 ( identifier).

Predictors of Graft Failure in Young Active Patients Undergoing Hamstring Autograft Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With or Without a Lateral Extra-articular Tenodesis: The Stability Experience.

Am J Sports Med

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) has higher failure rates in young active patients returning to sports as compared with older, less active individuals. Augmentation of ACLR with an anterolateral procedure has been shown to reduce failure rates; however, indications for this procedure have yet to be clearly defined.

The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of ACL graft failure in high-risk patients and determine key indications for when hamstring ACLR should be augmented by a lateral extra-articular tenodesis (LET). We hypothesized that different preoperative characteristics and surgical variables may be associated with graft failure characterized by asymmetric pivot shift and graft rupture.

Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3.

Data were obtained from the Stability 1 Study, a multicenter randomized controlled trial of young active patients undergoing autologous hamstring ACLR with or without a LET. We performed 2 multivariable logistic regression analyses, with asymmetric pivot shift and graft rupture as the dependent variables. The following were included as predictors: LET, age, sex, graft diameter, tear chronicity, preoperative high-grade knee laxity, preoperative hyperextension on the contralateral side, medial meniscal repair/excision, lateral meniscal repair/excision, posterior tibial slope angle, and return-to-sports exposure time and level.

Of the 618 patients in the Stability 1 Study, 568 with a mean age of 18.8 years (292 female; 51.4%) were included in this analysis. Asymmetric pivot shift occurred in 152 (26.8%) and graft rupture in 43 (7.6%). The addition of a LET (odds ratio [OR], 0.56; 95% CI, 0.37-0.83) and increased graft diameter (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.44-0.87) were significantly associated with lower odds of asymmetric pivot shift. The addition of a LET (OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.18-0.91) and older age (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.72-0.96) significantly reduced the odds of graft rupture, while greater tibial slope (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.01-1.32), preoperative high-grade knee laxity (OR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.45-7.41), and greater exposure time to sport (ie, earlier return to sport) (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.08-1.29) were significantly associated with greater odds of rupture.

The addition of a LET and larger graft diameter were significantly associated with reduced odds of asymmetric pivot shift. Adding a LET was protective of graft rupture, while younger age, greater posterior tibial slope, high-grade knee laxity, and earlier return to sport were associated with increased odds of graft rupture. Orthopaedic surgeons should consider supplementing hamstring autograft ACLR with a LET in young active patients with morphological characteristics that make them at high risk of reinjury.

Profiling the tackle and its injury characteristics in premier New Zealand club rugby union players over a complete season.

Brit J Sports Med

RugbySmart is a safe tackle technique education programme. Our objective was to identify whether the RugbySmart-recommended safe tackle technique was exhibited by club rugby players and whether tackle-related injuries showed poor tackle technique characteristics.

The prospective cohort design enabled 28 senior club based amateur male rugby union players from New Zealand to be followed over 18 matches in the 2017 rugby season. Game video analysis by three analysts provided categorisation of tackle technique into type, approach, foot contact, leading foot and rear foot position, face and head position. Injuries were diagnosed by the same sports medicine physician.

In the 18 matches, 28 players completed a combined total of 3006 tackles, with only six tackle-related injuries sustained. Notable findings included: (1) forwards complete more tackles than backs; (2) shoulder tackles were the most prevalent tackle; (3) good tackle technique as promoted by RugbySmart was demonstrated in 57.9% of all tackles and (4) of the six tackle-related injuries, two occurred despite RugbySmart desired tackle techniques.

This is the first study to investigate whether players were performing the recommended 'safe tackle technique' proposed by New Zealand Rugby's RugbySmart programme. As two of six tackle-related injuries occurred despite the RugbySmart preferred technique being performed, further technique analysis and a larger sample are needed to determine what techniques reduce risk of injury during tackles. As only 57.9% of tackles were performed with RugbySmart head and foot positions, further research and education regarding tackle technique recommendations are needed.

Association of Sex Mismatch Between Donor and Recipient With Graft Survivorship at 5 Years After Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation.

Am J Sports Med

Sex mismatch between donor and recipient has been considered a potential contributor to adverse outcomes after solid organ transplantation. However, the influence of sex mismatching in osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation has yet to be determined.

To evaluate whether donor-recipient sex mismatching affects graft survival after OCA transplantation.

Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

In this review of prospectively collected data, patients who underwent OCA transplantation between November 2013 and November 2017 by a single surgeon were analyzed. Cumulative survival was assessed via the Kaplan-Meier method using log-rank tests to compare patients with similar donor groups. Multivariable Cox regression analysis adjusted for patient age, graft size, and body mass index was used to evaluate the influence of donor-recipient sex on graft survival.

A total of 154 patients were included: 102 (66.2%) who received OCAs from a same-sex donor and 52 (33.8%) who received OCAs from a different-sex donor. At 5-year follow-up, a significantly lower graft survival rate was observed for different-sex donor transplantation in comparison with same-sex donorship (63% vs 92%; P = .01). When correcting for age, graft size, and body mass index, donor-recipient sex-mismatch transplantation demonstrated a 2.9-times greater likelihood to fail at 5 years compared with donor-recipient same-sex transplantation (95% CI, 1.11-7.44; P = .03). A subgroup analysis showed no significant difference in graft survival between the female-to-female and female-to-male groups (91% and 84%, respectively). Conversely, male-to-male transplantation demonstrated a significantly higher cumulative 5-year survival (94%; P = .04), whereas lower survival was found with male-to-female donorship (64%; P = .04). Multivariable Cox regression indicated a 2.6-times higher likelihood of failure for the male-to-female group in comparison with the other groups (95% CI, 1.03-6.69; P = .04). Male-to-male transplantation had a tendency toward decreased likelihood of OCA failure (hazard ratio, 0.33), although without statistical significance (95% CI, 0.11-1.01; P = .052).

Mismatch between donor and recipient sex had a negative effect on OCA survival after transplantation, particularly in those cases when male donor tissue was transplanted into a female recipient.