The latest medical research on Vascular Surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about vascular surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Association of Treatment Inequity and Ancestry With Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Survival.

JAMA Surgery

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a higher incidence and worse outcomes among black patients than white patients, potentially owing to a combination of socioeconomic, biological, and treatment differences. The role that these differences play remains unknown.

To determine the level of survival disparity between black and white patients in a modern PDAC cohort and whether treatment inequity is associated with such a disparity.

This cohort study used data on 278 936 patients with PDAC with database-defined race from the National Cancer Database from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2015. The median follow-up for censored patients was 24 months. The National Cancer Database, comprising academic and community facilities, includes about 70% of new cancer diagnoses in the United States. Race-stratified receipt of therapy was the primary variable of interest. Multivariable analyses included additional demographic and clinical parameters. Data analysis was initially completed on November 30, 2018, and revised data analysis was completed on June 27, 2019.

Overall survival was the primary outcome, analyzed with Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression modeling.

The cohort included 278 936 patients (137 121 women and 141 815 men; mean [SD] age, 68.72 [11.57] years); after excluding patients from other racial categories, 243 820 of the 278 936 patients (87.4%) were white and 35 116 of the 278 936 patients (12.6%) were black. Unadjusted median overall survival was longer for white patients than for black patients (6.6 vs 6.0 months; P < .001). Black patients presented at younger ages than white patients (15 819 of 35 116 [45.0%] vs 83 846 of 243 820 [34.4%] younger than 65 years; P < .001) and with more advanced disease (20 853 of 31 600 [66.0%] vs 135 317 of 220 224 [61.4%] with stage III or IV disease; P < .001). Black patients received fewer surgical procedures than white patients for potentially resectable stage II disease (4226 of 8097 [52.2%] vs 39 214 of 65 124 [60.2%]; P < .001) and slightly less chemotherapy for advanced disease (2756 of 4067 [67.8%] vs 17 296 of 25 227 [68.6%] for stage III disease [P = .001]; 8208 of 16 104 [51.0%] vs 58 603 of 105 616 [55.5%] for stage IV disease [P < .001]). Decreased survival for black patients persisted in multivariable modeling controlled for sociodemographic parameters (hazard ratio, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.02-1.05]). Conversely, modeling that controlled specifically for clinical parameters such as disease stage and treatment revealed a modest survival advantage (hazard ratio, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.93-0.96]) among black patients. Resection was the factor most strongly associated with overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.39 [95% CI, 0.38-0.39]).

Black patients with PDAC present at younger ages and with more advanced disease than white patients, suggesting that differences in tumor biology may exist. Black patients receive less treatment stage for stage and fewer surgical procedures for resectable cancers than white patients; these findings may be only partly associated with socioeconomic differences. When disease stage and treatment were controlled for, black patients had no decrease in survival.

Association of High Mortality With Postoperative Myocardial Infarction After Major Vascular Surgery Despite Use of Evidence-Based Therapies.

JAMA Surgery

Patients undergoing vascular surgery are at high risk of postoperative myocardial infarction (POMI). Postoperative myocardial infarction is independently associated with significant risk of in-hospital mortality.

To examine the association of patient and procedural characteristics with the risk of POMI after vascular surgery and determine the association of evidence-based therapies with longer-term outcomes.

A retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected data within a statewide quality improvement collaborative database between January 2012 and December 2017. Patient demographics, comorbid conditions, and perioperative medications were captured. Patients were grouped according to occurrence of POMI. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with POMI. The collaborative collects data from private and academic hospitals in Michigan. Patients undergoing major vascular surgery, defined as endovascular aortic aneurysm repair, open abdominal aortic aneurysm, peripheral bypass, carotid endarterectomy, or carotid artery stenting were included. Analysis began December 2018.

The presence of a POMI and 1-year mortality.

Of 26 231 patients identified, 16 989 (65.8%) were men and the overall mean (SD) age was 69.35 (9.89) years. A total of 410 individuals (1.6%) experienced a POMI. Factors associated with higher rates of POMI were age (odds ratio [OR], 1.032 [95% CI, 1.019-1.045]; P < .001), diabetes (OR, 1.514 [95% CI, 1.201-1.907]; P < .001), congestive heart failure (OR, 1.519 [95% CI, 1.163-1.983]; P = .002), valvular disease (OR, 1.447 [95% CI, 1.024-2.046]; P = .04), coronary artery disease (OR, 1.381 [95% CI, 1.058-1.803]; P = .02), and preoperative P2Y12 antagonist use (OR, 1.37 [95% CI, 1.08-1.725]; P = .009). Procedurally, open abdominal aortic aneurysm (OR, 4.53 [95% CI, 2.73-7.517]; P < .001) and peripheral bypass (OR, 2.375 [95% CI, 1.818-3.102]; P < .001) were associated with the highest risk of POMI. After POMI, patients were discharged and received evidence-based therapy with high fidelity, including β-blockade (296 [82.7%]) and antiplatelet therapy (336 [95.7%]). A high portion of patients with POMI were dead at 1 year compared with patients without POMI (113 [37.42%] vs 993 [5.05%]; χ2 = 589.3; P < .001).

Despite high rates of discharge with evidence-based therapies, the long-term burden of POMI is substantial, with a high mortality rate in the following year. Patients with diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and valvular disease warrant additional consideration in the preoperative period. Further, aggressive strategies to treat patients who experience a POMI are needed to reduce the risk of postoperative mortality.

Cubital vein transposition for a distal radiocephalic fistula complicated by outflow obstruction.

J Vasc Access

Outflow stenosis is a frequent complication of vascular access for hemodialysis. It may cause increased pressure within the angioaccess along with reduced blood flow. Elective treatment is percutaneous transluminal angioplasty; however, when a long occlusion (>2 cm) occurs, success and mid-term patency of endovascular treatment are uncertain. We describe a case series of patients with long occlusion of elbow outflow complicating an otherwise excellent forearm arteriovenous fistula, treated by a bypass across the elbow through cubital vein transposition.

Six consecutive patients have been treated between 2015 and 2017; all were referred because of either low flow, increased venous pressure, excessive bleeding time, or recirculation and were examined by duplex ultrasound. A total of 83% of patients showed associated thrombosis within the access. All procedures were performed under loco-regional anesthesia and preventive hemostasis. Surgical thrombectomy was also performed when needed.

Immediate success was obtained in all but two patients converted in veno-venous polytetrafluoroethylene bypass. Post-operative blood flow increased from 316 to 878 mL/min. All patients were dialyzed through the forearm access immediately the day after surgery, without the need for central vein catheter. Overall, 75% of patients needed a percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the veno-venous anastomosis within 6 months. Primary and secondary patency at 12 and 24 months were 25%-0% and 100%-100%, respectively.

Outflow reconstruction through the elbow bypass by cubital vein transposition is a valuable resource to rescue radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula complicated by outflow obstruction, avoiding the use of an interim central vein catheter. Endovascular treatment is vital to maintain functional patency in the mid- and long term.

A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial to evaluate safety and efficacy of vorapaxar on arteriovenous fistula maturation.

J Vasc Access

Protease-activated receptor-1 antagonism by vorapaxar could facilitate arteriovenous fistula maturation but may increase bleeding risk.

The primary objective of the Vorapaxar Study for Maturation of arteriovenous fistula for Hemodialysis Access (VorapAccess) was to determine if vorapaxar improves arteriovenous fistula functional maturation in patients with end-stage renal disease.

VorapAccess was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot trial comparing 2.5 mg vorapaxar per day with placebo for twelve weeks starting on day two after arteriovenous fistula creation. The primary outcome was time to functional maturation defined as successful cannulation for six hemodialysis sessions within three weeks. The planned sample size was 50 participants. The study was terminated early after withdrawal of planned financial support. Given the small number of randomized patients, we performed descriptive analyses without inference testing.

A total of 13 participants were randomly allocated study drug (six vorapaxar and seven placebo). The median age was 56 years and seven participants (54%) were female. The median (minimum-maximum) days to functional maturation were 169 (77-287) days in the vorapaxar group and 145 (48-198) days in the placebo group. Six of the 13 (46%) participants had arteriovenous fistula functional maturation within 180 days; two of six (33%) in the vorapaxar group and four of seven (57%) in the placebo group. There was one bleeding event in the placebo group.

Fewer than half of participants had functional maturation within 180 days after surgery, suggesting a major need for agents or strategies that enhance arteriovenous fistula maturation.

Ultrasound-guided removal of organized thrombi using biopsy forceps in dialysis patients with arterio-venous access occlusion.

J Vasc Access

As a countermeasure against the organized thrombi frequently observed in vascular access occlusion, we devised a percutaneous excision method for organized thrombi under superficial ultrasound guidance using biopsy forceps. The Radial JawTM 3 (2 mm) biopsy forceps of Boston Scientific Corporation was used. The usefulness of this method was investigated.

The following protocol, which is suitable for endovascular treatment, was prepared and used: (1) all procedures were performed under ultrasound guidance and (2) use of the forceps was assisted via a long sheath in cases involving a complicated bloodstream.

Among 564 cases of arterio-venous access occlusion that received treatment at this hospital between May 2014 and April 2017, the subjects of this study were 468 cases who could be followed up. Thrombectomy of an organized thrombus using the biopsy forceps was performed 194 times in 138 cases. Biopsy forceps were used in the initial treatment in a total of 115 cases, including 71 cases of acute occlusion of an autologous vein, 3 cases of chronic occlusion of an autologous vein, and 41 cases of acute occlusion of a prosthetic vessel.

The initial success rate for all cases of occlusion was 97.2%. The initial success rate for cases in which biopsy forceps were used was 98.2%. For cases using biopsy forceps, the primary patency rates were 47.1% at 3 months, and the secondary patency rates (until occlusion) were 89.1% at 3 months.

This method was considered to be a valuable choice as a countermeasure against organized thrombi.

Ultrasound-based simulation for cannulation in outpatient hemodialysis units: An educational protocol.

J Vasc Access

Portable ultrasounds are often referred to as the "new stethoscope." Their portability and affordability have led to improved diagnostic capabiliti...

Patient selection, education, and cannulation of percutaneous arteriovenous fistulae: An ASDIN White Paper.

J Vasc Access

End-stage kidney disease patients who are candidates for surgical arteriovenous fistula creation commonly experience obstacles to a functional surg...

Outcomes of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis: A Review of a Disruptive Technology in Aortic Valve Surgery.

JAMA Surgery

Medically treated symptomatic severe aortic stenosis has poor outcomes, and in the past 6 decades, it has successfully been treated with surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). However, one-third of patients with indications for SAVR are not offered surgery because of the high risk of complications. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), initially developed as a less invasive treatment for inoperable patients, has successfully been used in healthier patient cohorts. In 2017, TAVR became the most common approach for aortic valve replacement in the United States.

During the past decade, the Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve (PARTNER) trials (for balloon-expandable valves) and the CoreValve trials (for self-expandable valves) investigated the performance of TAVR in progressively lower-risk patient cohorts. The initial trials demonstrated TAVR to be superior (PARTNER B) and noninferior (CoreValve Extreme Risk) to optimal medical therapy in inoperable patients. Subsequent trials showed both balloon-expandable and self-expandable valves to have good results in high-risk, medium-risk, and low-risk surgical patients when compared with SAVR. However, owing to the fundamentally different nature of the procedure, some complications have been more prevalent with TAVR, most notably moderate or severe paravalvular leak, conduction abnormalities necessitating permanent pacemaker placement, and vascular complications. When present, these complications have been associated with worse outcomes.

The results of the groundbreaking TAVR trials from the past decade have led to a revolution in the treatment of aortic stenosis. There are now 3 US Food and Drug Administration-approved TAVR devices, and with the encouraging results from the latest low-risk trials, TAVR is likely going to become the dominant treatment for symptomatic severe aortic stenosis. New devices on the horizon are looking to improve the complication rates of TAVR, and ongoing trials are looking to further expand the indications of TAVR and answer 1 of the main remaining questions, ie, long-term durability of percutaneously placed devices.

Effect of Cognitive Aids on Adherence to Best Practice in the Treatment of Deteriorating Surgical Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial in a Simulation Setting.

JAMA Surgery

Failure to rescue causes significant morbidity and mortality in the surgical population. Human error is often the underlying cause of failure to rescue. Human error can be reduced by the use of cognitive aids.

To test the effectiveness of cognitive aids on adherence to best practice in the management of deteriorating postoperative surgical ward patients.

Randomized clinical trial in a simulation setting. Surgical teams consisted of 1 surgeon and 2 nurses from a surgical ward from 4 different hospitals in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Data were analyzed between February 2, 2017, and December 18, 2018.

The teams were randomized to manage 3 simulated deteriorating patient scenarios with or without the use of cognitive aids.

The primary outcome of the study was failure to adhere to best practice, expressed as the percentage of omitted critical management steps. The secondary outcome of the study was the perceived usability of the cognitive aids.

Of the total participants, 93 were women and 51 were men. Twenty-five surgical teams performed 75 patient scenarios with cognitive aids, and 25 teams performed 75 patient scenarios without cognitive aids. Using the cognitive aids resulted in a reduction of omitted critical management steps from 33% to 10%, which is a 70% (P < .001) reduction. This effect remained significant (odds ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, -0.228 to -0.061; P = .001) in a multivariate analysis. Overall usability (scale of 0-10) of the cognitive aids was scored at a median of 8.7 (interquartile range, 8-9).

Failure to comply with best practice management of postoperative complications is associated with worse outcomes. In this simulation study, adherence to best practice in the management of postoperative complications improves significantly by the use of cognitive aids. Cognitive aids for deteriorating surgical patients therefore have the potential to reduce failure to rescue and improve patient outcome.

ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03812861.

Outcome Measures for Acute Submassive Pulmonary Embolisms at a Community-Based Hospital Using Ultrasound-Facilitated, Catheter-Directed, Low-Dose Fibrinolysis.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

Ultrasound-facilitated, catheter-directed, low-dose fibrinolysis (USAT) appears to provide promising results for the management of acute submassive pulmonary embolisms (ASMPEs) at tertiary care centers. This study assessed outcome measures at a community-based hospital systems and compared results to known studies.

This is a single-center, retrospective study assessing clinical outcomes of the EkoSonic Endovascular System intervention for ASMPEs performed by three surgical 3 subspecialties (interventional radiology, interventional cardiology, and vascular surgery) part of a pulmonary embolism response team (PERT). We reviewed 146 PERT activations from June 2013 to December 2017. Eighty-three patients with ASMPEs underwent USAT.

Our study showed greater differences (P = .01) between baseline and follow-up pulmonary artery systolic pressures (20.9 ± 9.8 mm Hg [n = 14]) compared to the ULTIMA study (12.3 ± 10 mm Hg [n = 30]). Our length-of-stay measures were shorter (6.1 ± 5.1 [n = 83]; P = .0001) compared to the SEATTLE II study (8.8 ± 5.0 [n = 150]). Preprocedure transthoracic echocardiograms (TTEs) were performed for 54 (65%) of 83 patients. Postprocedure TTEs at 48 hours was performed for 52 (62%) of 83 patients. Use of TTEs before and after intervention did not change outcomes. Intracranial hemorrhage was not observed in our patient population. There was no difference in outcomes between the three subspecialties in our study.

Use of USAT in a community-based hospital PERT has similar outcomes to tertiary care centers. Furthermore, similar outcomes were observed between the three subspecialties suggesting development of a comprehensive care team for management of ASMPEs.

The impact of flushing with pre-filled saline syringes on the incidence of peripheral venous catheter failure: A quasi-experimental study.

J Vasc Access

Short peripheral venous catheters are one of the most frequently used devices in hospitals. Peripheral venous catheter failure, defined as the unscheduled dysfunction of peripheral venous catheter, is common and frequently entails a new invasive procedure. Flushing the catheter maintains patency and could prolong peripheral venous catheter dwell time. The introduction of pre-filled saline flushing syringes as compared to manually filled saline flushing syringes could facilitate the frequency of catheter flushing, and subsequently it could reduce peripheral venous catheter failure rate.

To demonstrate differences in overall peripheral venous catheter failure rates before and after the introduction of pre-filled saline flushing syringes and to assess the risk factors for peripheral venous catheter failure.

Quasi-experimental design, before-and-after intervention study. Intervention: introduction of pre-filled saline syringes for flushing. Multicenter study conducted in medical and surgical wards of three European hospitals during a 9-month period (4 months pre-intervention, 5 months intervention). A multivariate Cox proportional model was used to identify factors associated with the occurrence of peripheral venous catheter failure.

Data from 3853 peripheral venous catheters in 1915 patients were analyzed. Compared to pre-intervention period, a significant decrease in peripheral venous catheter failure rate was observed in the intervention period (57% vs 43.4%, p < 0.001). Independent factors associated with peripheral venous catheter failure were as follows: Charlson score ⩾4 (hazard ratio: 1.648; 95% confidence interval: 1.069-2.527), days of hospital stay ⩾10 (hazard ratio: 1.468; 95% confidence interval: 1.172-1.837), and catheter "D" (hazard ratio: 1.758; 95% confidence interval: 1.058-2.919).

The use of pre-filled saline syringes significantly reduced peripheral venous catheter failure and increased catheter dwell time. Thus, it is important to reinforce the use of the pre-filled syringes for flushing to reduce the incidence of peripheral venous catheters' failure.

Total Laparoscopic Inferior Mesenteric Artery Ligation and Direct Sac Puncture Embolization Technique for Treatment of Type II Endoleak.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

Type II endoleak relates to aneurysm perfusion through a patent branch vessel. Reintervention for type II endoleak should be considered in the pres...