The latest medical research on Vascular Surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about vascular surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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A surgical method to be reminded for the treatment of symptomatic ipsilateral central venous occlusions in patients with hemodialysis access: Axillo-axillary venous bypass case report and review of the literature.


In this case report, we present two chronic hemodialysis patients with upper extremity swelling due to central venous occlusions together with their clinical presentation, surgical management and brief review of the literature.

The first patient who was a 63-year-old female patient with a history of multiple bilateral arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) was referred to our clinic. Physical examination demonstrated a functioning right brachio-cephalic AVF, with severe edema of the right arm, dilated venous collaterals, facial edema, and unilateral breast enlargement. In her history, multiple ipsilateral subclavian venous catheterizations were present for sustaining temporary hemodialysis access. The second patient was a 47-year-old male with a history of failed renal transplant, CABG surgery, multiple AV fistula procedures from both extremities, leg amputation caused by peripheral arterial disease, and decreased myocardial functions. He was receiving 3/7 hemodialysis and admitted to our clinic with right arm edema, accompanied by pain, stiffness, and skin hyperpigmentation symptoms ipsilateral to a functioning brachio-basilic AVF. He was not able to flex his arms, elbow, or wrist due to severe edema.

Venography revealed right subclavian vein stenosis with patent contralateral central veins in the first patient. She underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) twice with subsequent re-occlusions. After failed attempts of PTA, the patient was scheduled for axillo-axillary venous bypass in order to preserve the AV access function. In second patient, venography revealed right subclavian vein occlusion caused secondary to the subclavian venous catheters. Previous attempts for percutaneously crossing the chronic subclavian lesion failed multiple times by different centers. Hence, the patient was scheduled for axillo-axillary venous bypass surgery.

In case of chronic venous occlusions, endovascular procedures may be ineffective. Since preserving the vascular access function is crucial in this particular patient population, venous bypass procedures should be kept in mind as an alternative for central venous reconstruction, before deciding on ligation and relocation of the AVF.

What we have learned from in-vitro studies of the chimney endovascular technique for treatment of complex abdominal aortic aneurysms: A systematic review.


A considerable number of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is not eligible for standard endovascular repair. These complex cases require alternative surgical approaches including the readily available chimney graft endovascular aneurysm repair (Ch-EVAR) or sealing (Ch-EVAS). The optimal configuration for Ch-EVAR or Ch-EVAS is important for success but not yet known.

The aim of the present study was to analyze current data of the outcomes of in-vitro chimney graft treatment in complex AAA.

A systematic review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted including studies reporting on gutter size, main graft compression, and chimney graft compression in in-vitro configurations.

The search resulted in 285 articles. 11 studies considering 219 individual tests could be included. Gutter size was comparable between Ch-EVAR and Ch-EVAS configurations. In Ch-EVAR set-ups, the deployed BECG were Advanta V12, VIABAHN®, and BeGraft. One type of SECG was used: VIABAHN®. The four types of main grafts (MG) deployed were: Endurant™ I/II; EXCLUDER Conformable AAA Endoprosthesis and AAA Endoprosthesis, and AFX™ Endovascular AAA Delivery System. In the EVAS-configurations, the Nellix® EVAS system was deployed. In general, SECG presented smaller gutters with higher chimney graft compression. 30% main grafts oversizing seems to give the smallest gutters without high risk of infolding of MG. Oversizing, EndoAnchors, and secondary endobag filling (in Ch-EVAS) reduced gutter sizes. CG ballooning during the entire polymer injection in Ch-EVAS prevented CG compression.

In-vitro investigations provide insight in optimal Ch-EVAR and Ch-EVAS configurations for simulated complex AAA repair. The findings above might aid physicians in their planning to potential CG set-ups and can be used in future research to refine the most optimal configuration for chimney graft technique in complex AAA.

Hemodialysis vascular access in elderly patients: A comprehensive review.

J Vasc Access

The number of elderly patients initiating hemodialysis (HD) increased considerably over the past decade. Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are the pref...

Persistent Hemodynamic Depression After Carotid Artery Stenting: A Review and Update.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

According to the American Heart Association, ischemic stroke is the second leading cause of death globally and is responsible for approximately 11%...

Neoaortoiliac system and cryopreserved human allograft for the treatment of aortic graft infections.


To report and compare neoaortoiliac system reconstruction and cryopreserved human allograft in treating aortic graft infections.

We retrospectively analysed the data of the patients treated for aorto graft infections between January 2015 and May 2021 in our hospital. The clinical data, diagnostic procedures, and surgical options were evaluated. The primary endpoint of this study was the 30-day and 1-year mortality; secondary endpoints were major postoperative complications.

We retrospectively reviewed a series of 31 consecutive patients (28 males; median age 72 years, range, 50-87 years) with aortic graft infection treated with NAIS (n = 20, 65%) or cryopreserved allograft (n = 11, 36%). The clinical presentation included fever attacks in 18 (58%) patients, abdominal pain in 15 (48%) patients, haemodynamic instability in 6 (19%) patients, and haematemesis in 2 (7%) patients. The median operative time of the NAIS was longer than CHA without a statistically significant difference (458 min vs. 359 min, p = .505). The postoperative morbidity for all patients was 81%, with no significant difference between NAIS and CHA groups (85% vs. 73%, p = .638). There was no limb thrombosis of the new reconstructions. Limb loss occurred in 4 (13%) patients, including 2 (10%) NAIS patients and 2 (18%) CHA patients. One NAIS patient developed complications in the form of a distal (femoral) disruption of the vein 15 days after surgery. There were no significant differences between NAIS and CHA groups in ICU stay (12 vs 8 days, .984) but in hospitalization (22 vs 33, p = .033). The most common bacteria isolated were staphylococci strains in 15 (48%). In 13 (36%) patients, candida was positive. The in-hospital 30-day and 1-year mortality for all patients was 16% (5/31) and 29% (9/31), with no significant differences between NAIS and CHA at 30 days (25% vs. 0, p = .133) or 1 year (35% vs. 18%, .429). Five NAIS patients died during the hospital stay; three of them had end-of-life decisions. After a median follow-up of 16 months (1-66 months), 12 (39%) patients died, including 9 patients with NAIS and 3 with CHA reconstructions. The causes of death included overwhelming sepsis in 5 (42%) patients, graft disruption in one (8%) NAIS patient, non-small cell lung cancer in one (8%) patient, COVID-19 in one (8%) patient and unknown causes (8%) in one.

Non-staged neoaortoiliac system reconstruction and cryopreserved human allografts show comparable short- and midterm results for treating aortic graft infections. However, both procedures remain challenging with high morbidity and mortality rates.

One-year duplex ultrasound-assessed closure outcomes of percutaneous endovenous microwave ablation for the treatment of varicose veins of the lower limbs.


This study aims to investigate the safety and efficacy of a new device using microwave technology for the endovenous ablation of the great saphenous vein (GSV) causing symptomatic lower limb varicose veins (LLVV).

This prospective, single-arm, single-center, cohort study investigated the safety and effectiveness of endovenous microwave ablation for the treatment of symptomatic LLVV. Enrollment period was set between January and December 2020. Primary safety endpoint was the occurrence of procedure-related complications and primary efficacy endpoint was anatomical success defined as the duplex ultrasound (DUS)-proven GSV occlusion at 1 year follow-up. Secondary endpoints included 1-year clinical success (CEAP classification improvement), repeat procedures rate due to GSV recanalization, and pain assessment at 24 h post treatment.

In total, 50 patients (42 female; mean age: 62 ± 12 years) with 64 limbs were treated. No procedure-related complications were noted. Technical success was 95.3% (61/64 GSVs), as three cases of GSV recanalization were detected. Clinical success was 100%, as in all cases symptoms improvement by at least one grade according to CEAP classification, was achieved. Mean CEAP grade significantly improved from 3.3 ± 0.72 (median: 3) at baseline to 1.8 ± 0.85 (median: 2) at 1-year (p < 0.0001). There were no repeat procedures due to GSC recanalization. The median 24-h VAS value was 2 (mean: 1.9 ± 1.4).

Endovenous microwave ablation was safe and effective for the treatment of varicose veins, achieving high 1-year GSV occlusion rates.

The use of social media and virtual opportunities by integrated vascular surgery residency programs during the COVID-19 pandemic.


The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected the 2021 match application cycle as in person sub-internships and interviews have been halted. Given the abrupt change, we aimed to characterize the utilization of social media and virtual open house platforms by integrated vascular surgery residency programs for outreach and networking during the pandemic for the 2021 cycle.

A list of accredited integrated vascular surgery residency programs was compiled using the Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS) website provided by the Academic Medical Colleges (AMC). The social media platforms Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook were queried for accounts associated with the training programs or their associated institutional vascular surgery divisions. Each discovered account was surveyed for date of creation as well as posts outlining virtual interactive events such as open houses, meet-and-greets, and virtual sub-internship opportunities. Slopes of the curves representing total account numbers and account numbers on each platform were compared from pre-COVID to current day using linear regression and t-statistics.

There were 64 integrated vascular surgery residency programs participating in the 2021 match cycle. 70.3% (N = 45) of programs had a social media presence on at least one of the three platforms. 54.7% (N = 35) of programs had an associated Twitter account. 43.9% (N = 28) of programs had an associated Instagram account. Six (9.4%) programs were found on Facebook. The number of social media accounts significantly increased from March 2020 (37 vs 69, p < .001) to March 2021.

Vascular surgery residency programs have significantly increased use of social media platforms over a 12-month period beginning in March 2020, indicating adaptation to the restrictions prompted by the pandemic.

Penetrating aortic ulcer and aortic intramural hematoma: Treatment strategy.


The indication, timing, and choice of the treatment modality for penetrating aortic ulcers (PAUs) and intramural hematoma (IMH) are frequently challenging. This article reviews these pathologies and their relation to aortic dissection and proposes a diagnostic and treatment algorithm.

A review of literature on diagnosis and treatment of PAU and IMH was conducted. The PubMed database was searched using the terms "penetrating aortic ulcer" and "aortic intramural hematoma". Articles were reviewed and the studies involving diagnosis and management of PAU and IMH were included. We subsequently proposed a management algorithm for PAU and IMH based on available evidence.

PAU and IMH are distinct entities from aortic dissection, although they carry a significant risk of progression into dissection, aneurysm, and rupture. PAU and IMH originating in zone 0 of the aorta generally require surgical treatment. When the origin is beyond zone 0, a trial of medical therapy is recommended. Progression of disease on imaging studies, persistent uncontrolled pain, and certain high-risk features warrant surgery. High-risk features signaling risk of disease progression include PAU with IMH, PAU depth more than 10 mm, PAU diameter more than 20 mm, IMH thickness more than 10 mm, and maximum initial aortic diameter more than 40 mm.

High-quality evidence regarding the treatment of PAU and IMH is lacking. These entities can have a malignant course when they are present with associated symptoms and/or when they have associated high-risk features on imaging. An aggressive surgical approach is necessary in that group of patients.

Assessment of microcirculatory changes in local tissue oxygenation after revascularization for peripheral arterial disease with the Hyperview®, a portable hyperspectral imaging device.


The Hyperview® is a hyperspectral camera, which can be used to assess the microcirculation of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and/or diabetes mellitus (DM). It measures local tissue oxygenation in concentrations of oxyhemoblobin (OXY), deoxyhemoglobin (DEOXY), and O2-saturation (O2-SAT) in arbitrary units. The aim of this validation study is to assess whether the Hyperview® is able to monitor microcirculatory changes after revascularization in patients with PAD.

In this prospective observational cohort study, 50 patients with PAD were included who were scheduled for endovascular, hybrid, or open revascularization. The ankle-brachial index (ABI), systolic toe pressure (TP) (in case of DM), and a set of Hyperview® measurements of the plantar region were recorded before and after treatment. Changes in pre- and postoperative measurements were assessed with the paired t-test.

Some 38 patients underwent endovascular revascularization and eight patients underwent hybrid or open vascular surgical revascularization. After revascularization, the ABI improved from 0.58 to 0.80 (p < 0.001). OXY increased from 72.6 to 77.8 (p = 0.134). DEOXY decreased from 69.1 to 55.0 (p < 0.001). O2-SAT increased from 51.3 to 58.1 (p < 0.001). TP improved from 50.6 to 61.9 mmHg (p = 0.065) but was measured in only 16 patients.

The Hyperview® is able to observe changes in the microcirculation after revascularization in terms of DEOXY and O2-SAT. The results of this study are a promising step into the validation of the Hyperview®.

A novel extra-catheter guide wire technique for in situ exchange of dysfunctional tunnelled central venous hemodialysis catheter.

J Vasc Access

Tunneled central venous catheters (tCVC) exchange may be difficult in some situations. We retrospectively report our preliminary experience of a novel extra-catheter guide wire technique for exchange of dysfunctional tCVC.

Retrospectively analyze the demographics, treatment details and outcomes data of 39 patients received tCVC exchange from January 2018 to January 2019. According to whether guide wire could pass through the catheter lumen, patients were divided into in-catheter group and extra-catheter group. The technical successful rate, peri-operative complications, 1-month and 6-month catheter flow rate was recorded and compared between the 2 groups.

The final study population consists of 39 patients, including 16 in-catheter group and 23 extra-catheter group. The technical successful rate was 100% in both groups. All patients achieved restoration of line patency and completed at least 1 hemodialysis section. The 1-month (267.69 ± 20.12 vs. 274.13 ± 17.69, p = 0.604) and 6-month (255.81 ± 12.93 vs. 256.97 ± 11.20, p = 0.403) catheter flow rate was comparable between the 2 groups.

The novel extra-catheter guide wire technique was helpful for in situ exchange of dysfunctional tunneled central venous hemodialysis catheters, especially when the guide wire could not pass through the catheter lumen.

Comparative intervention assessing a catheter stabilization device on peripheral intravenous line loss.

J Vasc Access

Short peripheral intravenous catheters are the most common invasive procedure used to deliver medications, blood products, and fluids to patients, and failure has the potential to impact the quality of care.

This study compared IVs stabilized with current transparent film dressing to those using an engineered stabilization device. The first phase of the study evaluated documentation; data from patient records were found less than optimal but most complete for securement and removal, the two fields most critical to the study. The second phase measured IV dwell time, restart rates, and time between IV loss and restarts.

Although there were no statistically significant differences in restarts, the IV dwell time was longer when the engineered device was in place, helping to extend the life of the IV and prevent interruption of care. In the absence of data on the cost of infections and other complications, the use of an engineered device increased the cost of IV starts.

Adding an engineered stabilization device increases the cost of peripheral IV starts, but contributes to reducing IV restarts and preventing IV complications due to destabilized IVs. Although there were no statistically significant differences in restarts, the IV dwell time was longer when the device was in place, helping to extend the life of the IV and prevent interruption of care. Complete and accurate documentation and improved quality depended upon the ability to abstract unit-level data, which is vital for capturing the appropriate healthcare indicators. Clinical nurses must be involved in the decision-making regarding health records and operability at the unit level.

Reliability and compliance of peripheral intravenous catheter documentation: A prospective observational study.

J Vasc Access

Proper documentation of the functionality and complications of peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVC) is the standard of care. This data can improve communication among team members about access concerns and highlight opportunities to improve PIVC care. Our objective is to determine if nursing personnel are compliant with institutional standards for documentation and documentation is reliable.

This prospective observational analysis was conducted at a tertiary care academic center with 120,000 ED visits and 1100 hospital beds. Adults over 18 with a PIVC placed in the ED via palpation technique who were being admitted to regular medical/surgical wards were eligible. The primary outcome was compliance with PIVC documentation per institutional standards. Secondary outcomes included compliance subcategorized as insertion, daily assessment, and removal and reliability of assessments.

During July and August 2020, 77 patients were enrolled with a total of 1201 observations of PIVC compliance. PIVC documentation compliance was 86.0% (1033/1201). Compliance on insertion and removal was 93.3% (431/462) and 80.5% (186/231), respectively, with removal assessment being the least compliant at 49.4%. Daily catheter assessments were compliant 81.9% (416/508) of the time. PIVC documentation reliability was based on 693 total observations with 87.9% (609/693) reliability overall, and a reliability of 91.6% (423/462) and 74.9% (173/231) for insertion and removal, respectively. PIVC orientation had the highest reliability (98.7%) while post-removal assessment had the lowest reliability (45.5%).

We observed moderate documentation compliance and reliability for PIVC assessments for catheters placed in the ED. Documentation of removal-related variables was the most deficient aspect of the assessments. Given the high rate of PIVC failure and its vast array of consequences, improvement of PIVC documentation of removal reasons is essential to better identify type and incidence of complications and help develop targeted solutions. Further larger studies are needed to survey PIVC documentation practices.