The latest medical research on Vascular Surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about vascular surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Comparing catheter related bloodstream infection rate between cuffed tunnelled and non-cuffed tunnelled peripherally inserted central catheter.

J Vasc Access

To compare catheter related blood stream infection (CRBSI) rate between cuffed tunnelled and non-cuffed tunnelled PICC.

We prospectively followed 100 patients (50:50 cuffed and non-cuffed PICC) and compared CRBSI rate between these groups. Daily review and similar catheter care were performed until a PICC-related complication, completion of therapy, death or defined end-of-study date necessitate removal. CRBSI was confirmed in each case by demonstrating concordance between isolates colonizing the PICC at the time of infection and from peripheral blood cultures.

A total of 50 cuffed PICC were placed for 1864 catheter-days. Of these, 12 patients (24%) developed infection, for which 5 patients (10%) had a CRBSI for a rate of 2.7 per 1000 catheter-days. Another 50 tunnelled non-cuffed PICCs were placed for 2057 catheter-days. Of these, 7 patients (14%) developed infection, for which 3 patients (6%) had a CRBSI. for a rate of 1.5 per 1000 catheter-days. The mean time to development of infection is 24 days in cuffed and 19 days in non-cuffed groups. The mean duration of utilization was significantly longer in non-cuffed than in cuffed group (43 days in non-cuffed vs 37 days in cuffed group, p = 0.008).

Cuffed PICC does not further reduce the rate of local or bloodstream infection. Tunnelled non-cuffed PICC is shown to be as effective if not better at reducing risk of CRBSI and providing longer catheter dwell time compared to cuffed PICC.

Retained port connectors after central venous port removal.

J Vasc Access

We report three cases where the connector/sleeve, which helps fix the flexible catheter section to a port injection chamber, was inadvertently left...

Arterial diameter following arteriovenous fistula creation predicts aneurysm progression.

J Vasc Access

To investigate the relationship between arteriovenous fistula (AVF) arterial diameter (AD) and AVF aneurysm development and progression.

This study identified all patients who underwent fistulograms which demonstrated AVF aneurysms meeting criteria and requiring surgical intervention between 01/01/2014 and 7/30/2016. Patient demographics were collected and AVF dimensions were measured on fistulograms. A control group with nonaneurysmal AVFs who had undergone serial fistulograms between 2013 and 2016 were identified and identical datasets collected. Statistical analysis was performed with STATA 14.0 using student's t-test, Chi square tests and linear regression.

45 eligible patients were identified in the AVF aneurysm study group and 24 in the control group, with the mean age of AVF creation being older in the control group (61.8 vs 53 years, p = 0.03). The mean interval between AVF creation and first fistulogram in the study group was 1464 ± 282 days, compared to an interval of 263 ± 101 days in the control group (p = 0.003). The AD on the first fistulogram in those study group patients with aneurysms evident on first fistulogram was greater than in the control group (6.5±1.8 mm vs 5.0 ± 1.8 mm, p = 0.003). The AD on first fistulogram of the study group predicted maximum aneurysm diameter on last fistulogram (r = 0.6, p = 0.03) as well as the interval between first fistulogram and surgical revision (r = -0.33, p = 0.03).

AVF aneurysms are a later complication in access natural history and AD may help to predict their progression.

Evaluation of the difficulty of peripheral venous cannulation during anesthesia induction in children: Is DIVA score sufficient?

J Vasc Access

The primary objective of the present study was to determine the rate and the independent predictors of the difficult peripheral intravascular access (PIVA) in the operating room (OR). The secondary objective was to validate the ability of the difficult intravenous access (DIVA) scoring system in the detection of difficult PIVA in the operating room.

In this prospective observational study, patients between 0 and 18 years old who were operated in the pediatric hospital were evaluated. Peripheral intravenous cannulation performed during inhalation induction in 1008 patients were recorded. The following data were collected: demographic characteristics, the presence of a chronic disease, the DIVA score, operating room temperature, the area of PIVA application, the duration of PIVA and the number of PIVA attempts. The independent determinants of the difficult PIVA were determined with multivariate logistic regression.

A total of 1008 patients (82% boys) with a median age of 4 (range 0.04-17 years) were included in the study. The median number of PIVA attempts was 1 whereas the median duration for successful PIVA was 15 s (range 4-2100). PIVA was successful at the first attempt in 75.3% of patients. Among patients who required more than two PIVA attempts, the most common adjunctive method was to seek help from another operator (80.8%). In the multivariable logistic regression model, only the presence of chronic disease, being underweight, and DIVA score ⩾4 (OR 6.355, CI 4.57-9.486) remained to be the significant determinants of difficult PIVA.

The success rate of anesthesiologist-performed PIVA at the first attempt in the OR was 75.3%. Having a chronic disease, a DIVA score ⩾4 and being underweight appeared as the independent predictors for difficult PIVA.

Increased serum level of high sensitivity troponin T even prior to surgery can predict adverse events during carotid endarterectomy.


Perioperative stress affects the outcome of carotid endarterectomy performed under regional anesthesia. Here we aimed to explore the temporal profile of the stress marker cortisol and its relationship to high-sensitivity troponin-T, matrix metalloproteinase-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, and S100B as an indicator of blood-brain barrier alteration in the systemic circulation.

Prospective part of the study: a total of 31 patients with significant carotid stenosis scheduled for carotid endarterectomy in regional anesthesia were enrolled. Follow-up part of the study and retrospective analysis of the outcome: each patient was followed up to five years and morbidity as well as mortality data were collected from an electronic database. Blood samples from each patient were serially taken; prior to surgery (T1), at the time of reperfusion (T2), 24 h (T3) and 72 h later postoperatively (T4), then the plasma concentration of each biomarker was measured. Besides, the clinical and surgical factors and perioperative adverse events were recorded.

More positive correlations were found between: the early change of S100B (T2-T1) and late change in plasma cortisol level (T4-T3) (r = 0.403; p < 0.05); the early change of cortisol (T2-T1) and the early postoperative change of plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9 level (T3-T2) (r = 0.432; p = 0.01); the plasma concentration of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 at 24 postoperative hours and the late change in plasma high-sensitivity troponin-T level (T4-T3) (r = 0.705; p < 0.001). Five patients needed an intraoperative shunt in whom the high-sensitivity troponin-T was elevated even prior to surgery, but definitive stroke never occurred. Plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9 concentration at reperfusion independently predicted the five-year mortality with a cut-off value of 456 ng/ml (sensitivity: 86%, specificity: 84%, area 0.887, p = 0.002).

A higher intraoperative change in S100B level reflecting carotid endarterectomy induced acute silent brain ischemia was associated with more pronounced post-operative change of cortisol. An early elevation of cortisol was found to be associated with a delayed increase of matrix metalloproteinase-9. Importantly, an increased high-sensitivity troponin-T even prior to carotid endarterectomy may predict clamp intolerance, and elevated matrix metalloproteinase-9 at reperfusion suggests a poor outcome.

Critical limb ischemia patients clinically improving with medical treatment have lower neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios.


Inflammation is a component in the pathogenesis of critical limb ischemia. We aimed to assess how inflammation affects response to treatment in patients treated for critical limb ischemia using neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocytes ratios (PLR) as markers of inflammation.

Patients in a single tertiary cardiovascular center with critical limb ischemia unsuitable for surgical or interventional revascularization were retrospectively identified. Data were collected on medical history for risk factors, previous surgical or endovascular revascularization, and outcome. A standard regimen of low molecular weight heparin, aspirin, statins, iloprost infusions, and a standard pain medication protocol were applied to each patient per hospital protocol. Patients with improvement in ischemic pain and healed ulcers made up the responders group and cases with no worsening pain or ulcer size or progression to minor or major amputations made up the non-responders group. Responders and Non-responders were compared for risk factors including pretreatment NLR and PLR.

268 included patients who were not candidates for surgical or endovascular revascularization were identified. Responders had significantly lower pretreatment NLR (4.48 vs 8.47, p < 0.001) and PLR (162.19 vs 225.43, p = 0.001) values. After controlling for associated risk factors NLR ≥ 4.63 (p < 0.001) and PLR ≥ 151.24 (p = 0.016) were independently associated with no response to treatment.

Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-to-lymphocytes ratio are markers of inflammation that are reduced in patients improving with medical treatment suggesting a decreased state of inflammation before treatment in responding patients.

Alterations of serum levels of plasminogen, TNF-α, and IDO in granulomatosis with polyangiitis patients.


Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a representative of vasculitides associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies. "Classical" antibodies directed against proteinase 3 are involved in the pathogenesis and are part of the GPA diagnosis at the same time. Along with them, however, antibodies against Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein-2 (LAMP-2) and antibodies directed against plasminogen have been described in GPA.Objectives and methodology: We performed a cross-sectional study enrolling 34 patients diagnosed with GPA. Our study was aimed at looking for correlations between serum levels of LAMP-2 and plasminogen and the clinical manifestations of the GPA. Furthermore, we examined serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and its associated indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), as well as we looked for a correlation between these cytokines and the clinical manifestations of GPA.

The results showed that in GPA, serum plasminogen levels were negatively associated with renal involvement (receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) of 0.78) (95% CI 0.53-0.91), p = 0.035, and the extent of proteinuria, Spearman's Rho = -0.4, p = 0.015. Increased levels of TNF-α and IDO correlated with disease activity, Spearman's Rho =0.62, p = 0.001 and Spearman's Rho = 0.4, p = 0.022, respectively, whereas only TNF-α was increased in severe forms of GPA with lung involvement (ROC AUC of 0.8) (95% CI 0.66-0.94), p = 0.005.

In this study, we demonstrate the alteration of soluble factors, which play an important role in the pathogenesis of GPA and their relationship with the clinical manifestations of the disease. Our main results confirm the associations of increased secretory TNF-α and some clinical manifestations, and we describe for the first time decreased serum plasminogen levels and their association with renal involvement.

Study on the predictive effect of fibrinogen on vascular calcification.


Fibrinogen, lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein levels were associated with vascular calcification, but their predictive capacity for a vascular calcification was not reported.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive efficacy of fibrinogen, lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein by retrospective analysis of fibrinogen, lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein levels in patients with vascular calcification, to explore the effective predictive indexes of vascular calcification, to predict the occurrence and development of vascular calcification, and to provide a simple and effective method for the diagnosis and prevention of vascular calcification.Hypothesis: Fibrinogen is a good prediction of vascular calcification.

Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the effects of fibrinogen, lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein on the CV, and the ROC curve of the predictive model was used to assess its predictive effectiveness. We collected the relevant indicators of 462 patients admitted to the Department of Vascular Surgery of the First Hospital of Hebei Medical University from August 2018 to July 2020, including 189 patients with vascular calcification (40.9%) and 273 patients without vascular calcification (59.1%); 75% of the collected data is used for modeling (modeling group) and 25% for verification (verification group).

Results from the multivariate analysis showed fibrinogen, lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein to be independent predictors of vascular calcification. Next, the three-factor models are developed respectively. The area below the ROC curve in the fibrinogen, lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein forecast model was 0.8018, 0.7348, and 0.7019, respectively.

Fibrinogen is more predictive than high-density lipoprotein and lipoprotein in patients with arteriosclerosis.

Clinical features and management strategy of symptomatic spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and management strategy for patients with symptomatic spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection (SICAD).

In this retrospective study, consecutive patients with symptomatic SICAD from two institutions were included. The demographics, clinical manifestations, comorbidities, imaging findings and treatment strategy selection were obtained from the medical records. The general epidemiological data, treatment regimens and clinical and follow-up outcomes were analysed.

Patients were divided into the conservative treatment group (group A, n = 26) and endovascular treatment group (group B, n = 11). Of these 37 patients, extent of dissection in both groups included only celiac trunk (61.54%% vs. 18.18%, p = 0.03), common hepatic artery (CHA) and splenic artery (SA) (3.85%% vs. 54.55%, p = 0.001), CHA (7.69% vs. 18.18%, p = 0.57), SA (23.08% vs. 9.09, p = 0.65) and left gastric artery (LGA) (3.85% vs. 54.55%, p = 0.99). Of note, the extension of the lesion in group A was shorter than that in group B. In addition, there were significantly more type IIb in group A than in group B (42.31% vs. 9.09%, p = 0.06) and the mean length of dissection in group A was 42.3 ± 54.71 mm which was significantly shorter than that in the group B 58.45 ± 3.71 mm (p =0.04). During a median follow-up of 11.5 months, the 1, 3, 6 and 12 month follow-ups were completed in 100% (37/37), 100% (37/37), 94.59% (35/37) and 91.19% (34/37) of patients, respectively. The cumulative rate of persistent disease stability in patients with endovascular treatment group was higher than in that conservative treatment group at the 3, 6, 9 and 12 months (50% vs. 16.67%, p = 0.001; 80% vs. 37.5%, p =0.03; 100% vs. 62.5%, p = 0.012;100% vs. 91.67%, p = 0.02 respectively).

Most symptomatic SICAD have a tendency to persistent disease stability after conservative treatment. Risk factors for failed conservative treatment were length of dissection and branch involvement. Furthermore, endovascular treatment was associated with a high technical success and persistent disease stability rate, which might be reserved for patients with failed conservative treatment.

A narrative systematic review of randomised controlled trials that compare cannulation techniques for haemodialysis.

J Vasc Access

Cannulation of arteriovenous access for haemodialysis affects longevity of the access, associates with complications and affects patients' experiences of haemodialysis. Buttonhole and rope ladder techniques were developed to reduce complications. However, studies that compare these two techniques report disparate results. This systematic review performs an in-depth exploration of RCTs, with a specific focus on cannulation as a complex intervention.

A PICO question and protocol was developed as per PRISMA-P guidance and registered on PROSPERO (CRD42018094656 The systematic review included any RCT performed on adult patients with end-stage kidney disease undergoing cannulation of arteriovenous fistulae or grafts for in-centre haemodialysis, as performed by healthcare staff. Assessment of quality of RCTs and data extraction were performed by two co-authors independently. Data were extracted on the study design, intervention and comparator and outcomes, including patency, infection and patients' experiences.

The literature search identified 241 records. Ten records met inclusion criteria, which described five different RCTs that compared buttonhole to either rope ladder or usual practice. Results were disparate, with patency and infection results varying. Pain Visual Analogue scores were the only measure used to capture patients' experiences and results were inconclusive. All RCTs had differences and limitations in study design that could explain the disparity in results.

Current evidence does not allow definitive conclusions as to whether buttonhole or rope ladder needling technique is superior. Future RCTs should describe interventions and comparators with adequate detail, embed process evaluation, use standardised outcome measures and build on feasibility studies to produce definitive results.

The Effect of COVID-19 on Training and Case Volume of Vascular Surgery Trainees.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

In many facilities, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused suspension of elective surgery. We therefore sought to determine the impact of this on the surgical experience of vascular trainees.

Surgical case volume, breadth, and the participating trainee post-graduate level from 3 large New York City Hospitals with integrated residency and fellowship programs (Mount Sinai, Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of Medicine, and New York University) were reviewed. Procedures performed between February 26 to March 25, 2020 (pre-pandemic month) and March 26 to April 25, 2020 (peak pandemic period) were compared to those performed during the same time period in 2019. The trainees from these programs were also sent surveys to evaluate their subjective experience during this time.

The total number of cases during the month leading into the peak pandemic period was 635 cases in 2019 and 560 cases in 2020 (12% decrease). During the peak pandemic period, case volume decreased from 445 in 2019 to 114 in 2020 (74% reduction). The highest volume procedures during the peak pandemic month in 2020 were amputations and peripheral cases for acute limb ischemia; during the 2019 period, the most common cases were therapeutic endovascular procedures. There was a decrease in case volume for vascular senior residents of 77% and vascular junior and midlevel residents of 75%. There was a 77% survey response rate with 50% of respondents in the senior years of training. Overall, 20% of respondents expressed concern about completing ACGME requirements due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Vascular surgery-specific clinical educational and operative experiences during redeployment efforts have been limited. Further efforts should be directed to quantify the impact on training and to evaluate the efficacy of training supplements such as teleconferences and simulation.

Postdischarge Virtual Visits for Low-risk Surgeries: A Randomized Noninferiority Clinical Trial.

JAMA Surgery

Postdischarge video-based virtual visits are a growing aspect of surgical care and have dramatically increased in the setting of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

To evaluate the outcomes of all-cause 30-day hospital encounter proportion among patients who have a postdischarge video-based virtual visit follow-up compared with in-person follow-up.

Randomized, active, controlled noninferiority trial in an urban setting, including patients from a small community hospital and a large, tertiary care hospital. Patients who underwent minimally invasive appendectomy or cholecystectomy by a group of surgeons who cover emergency general surgery at these 2 hospitals were included. Patients undergoing elective and nonelective procedures were included.

Patients were randomized in a 2:1 fashion to video-based virtual visit or in-person visit.

The primary outcome is the percentage of patients with 30-day hospital encounter, and we hypothesized that there would not be a significant increase in the 30-day hospital encounter proportion for patients who receive video-based virtual postdischarge care compared with patients who receive standard (in-person) care. Hospital encounter includes emergency department visit, observation, or inpatient admission.

A total of 1645 patients were screened; 289 patients were randomized to the virtual group and 143 to the in-person group. Fifty-three patients crossed over to the in-person follow-up group. The percentage of patients who had a hospital encounter was noninferior for virtual visits (12.8% vs 13.3% for in-person, Δ 0.5% with 1-sided 95% CI, -∞ to 5.2%). The amount of time patients spent with the clinician (mean of 8.4 minutes virtual vs 7.8 minutes in-person; P = .30) was not different, but the median overall postoperative visit time was 27.5 minutes shorter (95% CI, -33.5 to -24.0).

Postdischarge video-based virtual visits did not increase hospital encounter proportions and provided shorter overall time commitment but equal time with the surgical team member. This information will help surgeons and patients feel more confident in using video-based virtual visits. Identifier: NCT03258177.