The latest medical research on Vascular Surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about vascular surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Transition Planning for the Senior Surgeon: Guidance and Recommendations From the Society of Surgical Chairs.

JAMA Surgery

Aging is well documented to be associated with declines in cognitive function and psychomotor performance, but only limited guidance is currently available from medical professional societies or regulatory agencies on how to translate these observations into the appropriate monitoring of physician performance.

The Society of Surgical Chairs conducted a panel discussion at its 2017 annual meeting and a subsequent survey of its membership in 2018 to develop recommendations for the transitioning of the senior surgeon.

Recommendations include mandatory cognitive and psychomotor testing of surgeons by at least age 65 years, potentially as a component of ongoing professional practice evaluation; career transition discussions with surgeons beginning early in their careers; respectful consideration of the potential financial needs, long-standing work commitments, and work-life concerns of retiring surgeons; and creation of teaching, mentoring or coaching, and/or administrative opportunities for senior surgeons in modified clinical or nonclinical roles. Ideally, these initiatives will catalyze a thoughtful and comprehensive new vista in supporting an aging workforce while ensuring the safety of patients, the efficient management of health care organizations, and the avoidance of unnecessary depletions to a sufficiently sized cadre of physicians with case-specific competencies.

Fracture Risk After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass vs Adjustable Gastric Banding Among Medicare Beneficiaries.

JAMA Surgery

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is associated with significant bone loss and may increase fracture risk, whereas substantial bone loss and increased fracture risk have not been reported after adjustable gastric banding (AGB). Previous studies have had little representation of patients aged 65 years or older, and it is currently unknown how age modifies fracture risk.

To compare fracture risk after RYGB and AGB procedures in a large, nationally representative cohort enriched for older adults.

This population-based retrospective cohort analysis used Medicare claims data from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2014, from 42 345 severely obese adults, of whom 29 624 received RYGB and 12 721 received AGB. Data analysis was performed from April 2017 to November 2018.

The primary outcome was incident nonvertebral (ie, wrist, humerus, pelvis, and hip) fractures after RYGB and AGB surgery defined using a combination of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition and Current Procedural Terminology 4 codes.

Of 42 345 participants, 33 254 (78.5%) were women. With a mean (SD) age of 51 (12) years, recipients of RYGB were younger than AGB recipients (55 [12] years). Both groups had similar comorbidities, medication use, and health care utilization in the 365 days before surgery. Over a mean (SD) follow-up of 3.5 (2.1) years, 658 nonvertebral fractures were documented. The fracture incidence rate was 6.6 (95% CI, 6.0-7.2) after RYGB and 4.6 (95% CI, 3.9-5.3) after AGB, which translated to a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.73 (95% CI, 1.45-2.08) after multivariable adjustment. Site-specific analyses demonstrated an increased fracture risk at the hip (HR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.82-4.49), wrist (HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.33-2.14), and pelvis (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.08-2.07) among RYGB recipients. No significant interactions of fracture risk with age, sex, diabetes status, or race were found. In particular, adults 65 years and older showed similar patterns of fracture risk to younger adults. Sensitivity analyses using propensity score matching showed similar results (nonvertebral fracture: HR 1.75; 95% CI, 1.22-2.52).

This study of a large, US population-based cohort including a substantial population of older adults found a 73% increased risk of nonvertebral fracture after RYGB compared with AGB, including increased risk of hip, wrist, and pelvis fractures. Fracture risk was consistently increased among RYGB patients vs AGB across different subgroups, and to a similar degree among older and younger adults. Increased fracture risk appears to be an important unintended consequence of RYGB.

Peripheral Arterial Endovascular Procedures Performed in a Non-Hospital-Based Facility by First-Year Vascular Surgery Fellows.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

Traditionally, vascular surgery fellows (VSFs) have learned to perform peripheral arterial endovascular procedures in a hospital setting. Many vascular surgeons currently perform these procedures in an "outpatient" non-hospital-based setting. Loss of these cases from the hospital setting may impact vascular surgery fellowship endovascular volume. We assessed the safety of first-year VSFs performing peripheral endovascular procedures under the supervision of vascular surgery attending surgeons in a non-hospital-based facility.

Between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2016, 166 patients underwent 193 endovascular procedures in a non-hospital-based ambulatory facility: 136 interventions (65 femoral, 40 iliac, 13 popliteal, and 9 infrapopliteal arteries) and 31 diagnostic arteriograms for claudication (57.8%; 85), rest pain (11.6%; 17), tissue loss (12.9%; 19), and failing grafts (17.7%; 26). Interventions included balloon angioplasty alone in 8.8% (12/136) of cases, stents in 16.9% (23/136), covered stents in 14% (19/136), atherectomy in 60.3% (82/136), and mechanical thrombolysis in 0.7% (1/136).

First-year VSFs performed an increasing percentage of these procedures during this interval: academic year 2012 to 2013 = 0% (0/49), 2013 to 2014 = 31% (17/54), 2014 to 2015 = 93% (56/60), and 2015 to 2016 = 82% (57/70). All but 5 (3%) patients having 167 procedures were discharged home after 2 to 6 hours of bed rest without any 30-day adverse outcomes. Four patients were immediately transferred to our hospital after the intervention: 2 for respiratory issues (hypoxia), 1 for groin hematoma (observation only), and 1 for arterial occlusion (required tibial stent not available at outpatient center). One patient returned to our hospital with rest pain due to treatment site occlusion the following day.

Our results demonstrate that complex peripheral arterial endovascular procedures can be performed safely by first-year VSFs under vascular attending supervision in an outpatient, non-hospital-based setting.

Renal Autotransplant and Celiac Artery Bypass for Aneurysmal Degeneration Related to Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

We present a case of an 18-year-old female with neurofibromatosis type 1 who presented with abdominal pain and weight loss secondary to chronic mes...

Retrieval of Inferior Vena Cava Filters Temporarily Placed in a Suprarenal Position: A Review of 13 Patients.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

To evaluate the safety and efficacy of retrieval of inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs) temporarily placed in a suprarenal position.

Retrieval of IVCF placed in a suprarenal position was performed in 13 patients (5 men and 8 women; mean age: 45.1 ± 13.8 years) between July 2006 and May 2018 using either a loop snare technique or endobronchial forceps. Electronic medical records were reviewed for patient demographics and procedural information.

Inferior vena cava filter retrieved included Option Elite (n = 9, 69%) and Günther Tulip (n = 4, 31%). Caval thrombosis was not detected in any patients on pre- or postretrieval cavogram. Eleven suprarenal IVCFs (84%) were retrieved during the first retrieval attempt after a median indwelling time of 1.8 months (range, 0.03-12.10 months). Retrieval was initially unsuccessful in 2 (16%) patients with Option Elite filters, but both were successfully removed on second attempt using endobronchial forceps. Thirteen suprarenal IVCFs (100%) were ultimately retrieved.

Endovascular retrieval of IVCF temporarily placed in a suprarenal position is safe and efficacious.

Endovascular Repair for Ruptured Axillary Artery Aneurysm Proximal to Hemodialysis Access.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

Axillary artery aneurysms are uncommon and potentially high-risk lesions threatening the upper extremities. In hemodialysis patients, arteriovenous...

Renal Stent Migration Following TEVAR for Complicated Type B Aortic Dissection.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

We describe renal stent migration following thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for type B aortic dissection. A 68-year-old male presented ...

Initial Experience With Viabahn VBX as the Bridging Stent Graft for Branched and Fenestrated Endovascular Aneurysm Repair.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

To evaluate the feasibility and safety of a novel balloon-expandable, heparin-bonded endoprosthesis (Viabahn VBX, W. L. Gore and Associates) when used as a bridging stent graft (BSG) with fenestrated and branched endovascular aneurysm repair (FB-EVAR). FB-EVAR and BSGs increase repair complexity with the potential for endoleak formation, stenosis, thrombosis, and graft migration. The mechanical construction of the Viabahn VBX and its antithrombogenic properties may provide an advantage for FB-EVAR over existing BSGs. The efficacy, safety, and clinical outcomes were assessed.

Research ethics board approved, prospective, single arm cohort, pilot study of patients undergoing FB-EVAR between February 2017 and January 2018. Fenestrated and branched endovascular aneurysm repair was performed per the standard institutional protocol by a team composed of vascular surgeons and interventional radiologists. Viabahn VBX endografts were used for all intended visceral branches as long as appropriately sized devices were available (Under Investigational Testing Authorization from Health Canada). Patient characteristics, procedural details, and technical and clinical outcomes were reviewed and summarized.

FB-EVAR was performed in 13 patients (9 male and 4 female) mean age of 74 (range: 61-83) with a total of 41 Viabahn VBXs stents implanted. Mean maximum aneurysm size was 6.7 cm (range: 5.5-9.0 cm) and included 5 juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms and 8 thoracoabdominal; 3 type V, 3 type IV, and 2 type III (Crawford Classification). The Viabahn VBX was successfully deployed in 40 (98%) of 41 of cases. At median follow-up of 223 days (range: 2-462), there was a (40/40) 100% Viabahn VBX patency rate. Seven endoleaks were identified intra- or post procedurally in 6 (46%) of 13 cases, including 1 type IB, 3 type II, 2 type III, and 1 unclassified. Nine complications occurred in 6 patients.

The Viabahn VBX stent is a safe and effective BSG for FB-EVAR with no early stent thrombosis. Further evaluation is required to determine longer term stent efficacy.

Endovascular Treatment of Multiple Bronchial Artery Aneurysms With Prominent Fistula to Pulmonary Artery in a Patient With Interstitial Lung Disease: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

Bronchial artery aneurysm (BAA) is a rare entity. Ruptured BAA can cause life-threatening hemorrhage. It is recommended that treatment should be in...

A Rare Case of Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury After Mesenteric Revascularization.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

Endovascular treatment of chronic mesenteric ischemia is currently the treatment of choice, regardless of the number of involved vessels. Unlike ot...

Intraluminal Delivery of Simvastatin Attenuates Intimal Hyperplasia After Arterial Injury.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

Oral statins reduce intimal hyperplasia (IH) after arterial injury by only ∼25%. Alternative drug delivery systems have gained attention as carriers for hydrophobic drugs. We studied the effects of simvastatin (free vs hyaluronic acid-tagged polysialic acid-polycaprolactone micelles) on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration, VSMC proliferation and intimal hyperplasia. We hypothesized both free and micelle containing simvastatin would inhibit VSMC chemotaxis and proliferation, and local statin treatment would be more effective than oral in reducing IH in rats following carotid balloon injury.

VSMCs pretreated with free simvastatin (20 minutes or 20 hours) or simvastatin-loaded micelles underwent chemotaxis and proliferation to platelet-derived growth factor. Next, rats that underwent balloon injury of the common carotid artery received statin therapy-intraluminal simvastatin-loaded micelles prior to injury, periadventitial pluronic gel following injury, or combinations of gel, micelle, and oral simvastatin. After 14 days, morphometric analysis determined the -intimal to medial ratio. Findings were compared to controls receiving oral simvastatin or no statin therapy. Statistical analysis was by analysis of variance for the in vitro experiments and a factorial general linear model for the in vivo experiments.

The simvastatin-loaded micelles and free simvastatin inhibited VSMC chemotaxis (54%-60%). IH was induced in all injured vessels. Simvastatin in pluronic gel or micelles reduced IH compared to untreated controls (0.208 ± 0.04 or 0.160 ± 0.03 vs 0.350 ± 0.03, respectively); however, neither gel nor simvastatin-loaded micelles were superior to oral statins (0.261 ± 0.03). Addition of oral statins or combining both local therapies did not provide additional benefit. Micelles were the single greatest contributing factor in IH attenuation.

Intraluminally or topically delivered statins reduced IH. The efficacy of single-dose, locally delivered statin alone may lead to novel treatments to prevent IH. The different routes of administration may allow for treatment during endovascular procedures, without the need for systemic therapy.

Endovascular Therapy of Vascular Trauma-Current Options and Review of the Literature.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

To review the current use of endovascular techniques in trauma.

Multiple studies have demonstrated that, despite current guidelines, endovascular therapies are used in instances of arterial trauma.

The existing literature concerning arterial trauma was reviewed. Studies reviewed included case reports, single-center case series, large database studies, official industry publications and instructions for use, and society guidelines.

Endovascular therapies are used in arterial trauma in all systems. The use of thoracic endografts in blunt thoracic aortic trauma is accepted and endorsed by society guidelines. The use of endovascular therapies in other anatomic locations is largely limited to single-center studies. Advantages potentially include less morbidity due to smaller incisions as well as shorter operating room times. Many report using endovascular therapies even with hard signs of injury. Long-term results are limited by a lack of long-term follow-up but, in general, suggest that these techniques produce acceptable outcomes. The adoption of these techniques may be limited by resource and surgeon availability.

The use of endovascular therapies in trauma has gained acceptance despite not yet having a place in official guidelines.