The latest medical research on Vascular Surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about vascular surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Predictors of infrapopliteal vein bypass graft revision in patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia.


Surgical revascularization is the standard treatment for chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI). However, some patients may require reintervention. The Global Anatomic Staging System (GLASS), which evaluates the complexity of infrainguinal lesions, was proposed. This study aimed to identify predictors for graft revision and evaluate whether GLASS impacts vein graft revision.

Between 2011 and 2018, CLTI patients who underwent de novo infrapopliteal bypass using autogenous veins were retrospectively analyzed. To assess anatomic complexity with GLASS, femoropopliteal, infrapopliteal, and inframalleolar/pedal (IM) disease grades were determined. The outcomes of patients with or without graft revision were compared. Cox regression analysis was performed.

Thirty-six of the 80 patients underwent reintervention for graft revision. Compared to the non-graft revision group, the graft revision group exhibited significantly higher rates of GLASS stage III (66% vs 81%, p = 0.046) and grade P2 IM disease (25% vs 58%, p = 0.009). Multivariate analysis revealed that IM grade P2 (hazard ratio [HR], 3.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66-6.75; p = 0.001) and spliced vein grafts (HR, 3.18; 95% CI, 1.43-7.06; p = 0.005) were significantly associated with graft revision.

This study demonstrated that IM grade P2 and spliced vein grafts were predictors of graft revision. The GLASS stratification of IM disease grade may be useful in optimizing treatment for CLTI.

Haemodialysis access profile in failed kidney transplant patients: Analysis of data from the Catalan Renal Registry (1998-2016).

J Vasc Access

Data about vascular access (VA) use in failed kidney transplant (KT) patients returning to haemodialysis (HD) are limited. We analysed the VA profile of these patients, the factors associated with the likelihood of HD re-initiation through fistula (AVF) and the effect of VA in use at the time of KT on kidney graft (KTx) outcome.

Data from the Catalan Registry on failed KT patients restarting HD and incident HD patients with native kidney failure were examined over an 18-year period.

The VA profile of 675 failed KT patients at HD re-initiation compared with that before KT and with 16,731 incident patients starting HD was (%): AVF 79.3 versus 88.6 and 46.2 (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001), graft AVG 4.4 versus 2.6 and 1.1 (p = 0.08 and p < 0.001), tunnelled catheter TCC 12.4 versus 5.5 and 18.0 (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001) and non-tunnelled catheter 3.9 versus 3.3 and 34.7 (p = 0.56 and p < 0.001). The likelihood of HD re-initiation by AVF was significantly lower in patients with cardiovascular disease, KT duration >5 years, dialysed through AVG or TCC before KT, and females. The analysis of Kaplan-Meier curves showed a greater KTx survival in patients dialysed through arteriovenous access than in patients using catheter just before KT (λ2 = 5.59, p = 0.0181, log-rank test). Cox regression analysis showed that patients on HD through arteriovenous access at the time of KT had lower probability of KTx loss compared to those with catheter (hazard ratio 0.71, 95% CI 0.55-0.90, p = 0.005).

The VA profile of failed KT patients returning to HD and incident patients starting HD was different. Compared to before KT, the proportion of failed KT patients restarting HD with AVF decreased significantly at the expense of TCC. Patients on HD through arteriovenous access at the time of KT showed greater KTx survival compared with those using catheter.

Partial Inferior Vena Cava Reconstruction with Cryopreserved Aortic Homograft Following Resection for Malignancy.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

Malignant invasion of the inferior vena cava (IVC) often necessitates complete tumor thrombectomy and IVC reconstruction. Bovine pericardial xenogr...

Remdesivir-induced Bradycardia is not Associated with Worse Outcome in Patients with COVID-19: A Retrospective Analysis.

Cardiovascular Drugs

COVID-19, is primarily a respiratory illness but is known to cause extrapulmonary manifestations, especially on the cardiovascular system. Bradycardia is commonly reported in COVID-19 patients despite no prior history of occurrence, and many studies have shown an association with increased mortality. Multiple case reports have been published showcasing remdesivir potentially causing bradycardia. Our aim was to investigate the incidence of bradycardia in patients receiving remdesivir and examine the association with disease severity and survival outcomes.

A retrospective study was performed including 160 COVID-19 patients receiving remdesivir for 5 days. Patients' demographics, comorbidities, medication, vital signs, laboratory tests and outcome were recorded. Bradycardia was defined as a heart rate < 60 beats/min and severe bradycardia < 50 beats/min.

One hundred eighteen (73.8%) patients experienced at least one episode of bradycardia during hospitalisation. Bradycardia was present in 12 (7.5%) patients before treatment with remdesivir. The rate of bradycardia increased up to the 6th day of hospitalisation (40.6%) and subsequently diminished and normalised within 5 days after the last remdesivir dose (5% at Day 10). Severe bradycardia was observed in 13 (7.5%) patients. No difference was observed in ICU admission between groups (bradycardia vs no bradycardia). When we stratified patients according to the outcome of hospitalisation, no significant difference was observed in the occurrence of bradycardia between groups (alive vs dead) [p = 0.853].

Treatment with remdesivir may be associated with new-onset bradycardia in hospitalised patients with COVID-19. However, bradycardia is transient and is not associated with ICU admission and mortality.

Effects of the tip structure of temporary indwelling catheters on blood recirculation at various blood flow rates and diameters of the mock blood vessel.

J Vasc Access

The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the tip structure of the catheters used for hemodialysis on blood recirculation at varying blood flow rates and diameters of the mock blood vessel in a well-defined in vitro experimental system, focusing on reverse connection mode.

A mock circulatory circuit was created with silicon tubing (15 or 20 mm), a circulatory pump, connected through the catheter to dialysis circuit and dialyzer attached to dialysis machine. The tip of the inserted catheter was fixed to the center of the silicone tube, and 3 L of pig blood was poured into the blood side of the dialyzer and the recirculation rates were measured at blood flow rates of 100, 150, and 200 mL/min. Five types of commercially available catheters were used: (A) Argyle™, (B) Gentle Cath™ (Hardness gradient type), (C) Gentle Cath™, (D) Niagara™, and (E) Power-Trialysis®.

In the case of reverse connection mode, (1) the recirculation rates were lower in the catheter with a relatively large side hole (catheter C, 17%), catheters with a greater distance between the end hole and side hole (catheters C and D, 25%), and catheter with a symmetrical tip structure (catheter E, 10%) as compared with those in catheters A and B (40% and 25%); (2) increase of the blood flow rate in the dialysis machine was associated with a reduced recirculation rate; and (3) a wider inner diameter of the mock blood vessel and faster flow rate in the vessel were associated with a reduced recirculation rate.

The lowest recirculation was observed with the catheter with symmetrical holes, which produces a helical blood flow line that does not intersect with the blood streamline flowing out to the blood supply hole.

Systemic inflammation index as useful tool to predict arteriovenous graft stenosis: Our experience and literature review.

J Vasc Access

Many studies show that settings of severe inflammatory stress might be responsible for changes in circulating blood cells count. Effective inflammation indices are created calculating the quantitative relationship between these cells. No previous studies have been proposed on hemodialysis patients exploring the association between arteriovenous graft (AVG) stenosis and systemic inflammation markers, such as Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and systemic-immune-inflammation index (SII).

Patients undergone surgery for AVG creation in a 2-year period are examined. Examining their full blood count, we have established the value of inflammatory indices (NLR, PLR, SII) and we have compared their mean values in patients who have developed significant stenosis or not. Finally, we have considered the connection between those values and stenosis onset and recurrence in AVG.

Fifty-two patients are included in the study [male: 40%, mean age 70 ± 15 years (range 55-86)]. We have found out there is not statistical significance in preoperative values of inflammatory index (NLR p 0.33, PLR p 0.15, SII p 0.98) Otherwise NLR and SII indices were statistically significant 3 months after surgery (NLR 2.04 ± 0.98 vs 3.91 ± 2.10, p < 0.001; SII 415.32 ± 255.15 vs 636.91 ± 349.01, p 0.014).

Increased post-operative values of NLR and SII have proved a strong association with AVG outflow stenosis onset and recurrence.

An unusual spontaneous recanalization by multiple palmar arteriovenous connections of a chronically occluded radiocephalic hemodialysis fistula.

J Vasc Access

Preservation of a vascular access is crucial in the management of hemodialysis patients. In this regard, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA...

Anterior Tibial to Dorsalis Pedis Bypass to Manage Acute Ischemia Attributed to Pilon Fracture.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

Pilon fractures of the distal tibia are usually the result of a high-energy trauma and can affect seriously the arterial vasculature carrying an in...

Framework for Training in Minimally Invasive Pancreatic Surgery: An International Delphi Consensus Study.

Journal of the

Previous reports suggest that structured training in minimally invasive pancreatic surgery (MIPS) can ensure a safe implementation into standard practice. Although some training programs have been constructed, worldwide consensus on fundamental items of these training programs is lacking. This study aimed to determine items for a structured MIPS training program using the Delphi consensus methodology.

The study process consisted of 2 Delphi rounds among international experts in MIPS, identified by a literature review. The study committee developed a list of items for 3 key domains of MIPS training: (1) framework, (2) centers and surgeons eligible for training, and (3) surgeons eligible as proctor. The experts rated these items on a scale from 1 (not important) to 5 (very important). A Cronbach's α of 0.70 or greater was defined as the cut-off value to achieve consensus. Each item that achieved 80% or greater of expert votes was considered as fundamental for a training program in MIPS.

Both Delphi study rounds were completed by all invited experts in MIPS, with a median experience of 20 years in MIPS. Experts included surgeons from 31 cities in 13 countries across 4 continents. Consensus was reached on 38 fundamental items for the framework of training (16 of 35 items, Cronbach's α = 0.72), centers and surgeons eligible for training (19 of 30 items, Cronbach's α = 0.87), and surgeons eligible as proctor (3 of 10 items, Cronbach's α = 0.89). Center eligibility for MIPS included a minimum annual volume of 10 distal pancreatectomies and 50 pancreatoduodenectomies.

Consensus among worldwide experts in MIPS was reached on fundamental items for the framework of training and criteria for participating surgeons and centers. These items act as a guideline and intend to improve training, proctoring, and safe worldwide dissemination of MIPS.

Broad vs Narrow Spectrum Antibiotics in Common Bile Duct Stones: A Post Hoc Analysis of an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma Multicenter Study.

Journal of the

Antimicrobial guidance for common bile duct stones during the perioperative period is limited. We sought to examine the effect of broad-spectrum (BS) vs narrow-spectrum (NS) antibiotics on surgical site infections (SSIs) in patients with common bile duct stones undergoing same-admission cholecystectomy.

We performed a post hoc analysis of a prospective, observational, multicenter study of patients undergoing same-admission cholecystectomy for choledocholithiasis and/or acute biliary pancreatitis between 2016 and 2019. We excluded patients with cholangitis, perforated cholecystitis, and nonbiliary infections on admission. Patients were divided based on receipt of BS or NS antibiotics. Our primary outcome was the incidence of SSIs, and secondary outcomes included hospital length of stay, acute kidney injury (AKI), and 30-day readmission for SSI.

The cohort had 891 patients: 51.7% (n= 461) received BS antibiotics and 48.3% (n = 430) received NS antibiotics. Overall antibiotic duration was longer in the BS group than in the NS group (6 vs 4 d, p = 0.01); however, there was no difference in rates of SSI (0.9% vs 0.5%, p = 0.7) or 30-day readmission for SSI (1.1% vs 1.2%, p = 1.0). Hospital length of stay was significantly longer in the BS group (p < 0.001) as were rates of AKI (5% vs 1.4%, p = 0.001). On multivariable regression, BS antibiotic use was a risk factor for AKI (adjusted odds ratio 2.8, 95% CI 1.16 to 7.82, p = 0.02).

The incidence of SSI and 30-day readmission for SSI was similar between antibiotic groups. However, BS antibiotic use was associated with a longer hospitalization and greater likelihood of AKI.

Impedance Planimetry (Endoflip) and Ideal Distensibility Ranges for Optimal Outcomes after Nissen and Toupet Fundoplication.

Journal of the

Previous research has shown that impedance planimetry-based functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) measurements are associated with patient-reported outcomes after laparoscopic antireflux surgery. We hypothesize that Nissen and Toupet fundoplications have different ideal FLIP profiles, such as distensibility.

A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained quality database was performed. Patients who had FLIP measurements during fundoplications between 2013 and 2021 were included. Reflux Symptom Index, Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease-Health Related Quality of Life Questionnaire, and dysphagia score were collected for up to 2 years postoperatively. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare FLIP measurements vs outcomes.

Two hundred fifty patients (171 Toupet, 79 Nissen) were analyzed. Distensibility ranges were categorized as tight, ideal, or loose. The ideal distensibility index range of Toupet patients with the 30- and 40-mL balloon fills were 2.6 to 3.7 mm2/mmHg. This range was associated with less dysphagia at 1 year compared with the tight group (p = 0.02). For Nissen patients, the 30- and 40-mL ideal threshold was a distensibility index of ≥2.2 mm2/mmHg. Patients with distensibility exceeding this threshold had a better quality of life than the tight group, reporting better Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease-Health Related Quality of Life Questionnaire (p = 0.02) and lower dysphagia scores (p = 0.01) at 2 years.

Impedance planimetry revealed different ideal distensibility ranges after Toupet and Nissen fundoplications that are associated with improved patient-reported outcomes, suggesting that intraoperative FLIP has the potential to tailor fundoplication.

Financial Vulnerability of American College of Surgeons-Verified Trauma Centers: A Statewide Analysis.

Journal of the

Although trauma centers represent an integral part of healthcare in the US, characterization of their financial vulnerability has not been reported. We sought to characterize the financial health and vulnerability among California trauma centers and identify factors associated with high and low vulnerability.

The RAND Hospital Data financial dataset was used to evaluate all American College of Surgeons (ACS)-verified trauma centers in California. Financial vulnerability of each center was calculated using 6 metrics to calculate a composite Financial Vulnerability Score (FVS). Tertiles of the FVS were generated to classify trauma centers as high, medium, or low financial vulnerability. Hospital characteristics were also analyzed and compared.

Forty-seven ACS trauma centers were identified. Nine were Level I, 27 were Level II, and 8 were Level III. Level I centers encompassed the greatest proportion of the high FVS tier (44%), whereas Level II and III centers were the most likely to be in the middle and lower tiers, respectively (44%; 63%). Lower FVS centers had greater asset:liability ratios, operating margins, and days cash on hand compared with the 2 higher tiers, whereas high FVS centers showed a greater proportion of uncompensated care, outpatient share rates, outpatient surgeries, and longer days in net accounts. Lower FVS centers were more likely to be teaching hospitals and members of a larger corporate entity.

Many ACS trauma centers are at moderate/high risk for financial vulnerability and disparate impacts of stressor events, and the FVS may represent a novel metric that could be used at the local or statewide level.