The latest medical research on Vascular Surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about vascular surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Detecting the prevalence of bacterial colonization on tunneled cuffed hemodialysis catheters using quantitative PCR targeting 16S rRNA and scanning electron microscopy.

J Vasc Access

Tunneled cuffed hemodialysis catheters (TCC) get colonized by microorganisms, increasing risk for catheter related bacteremia (CRB). Our objective was to detect the prevalence of bacterial colonization of TCC by using quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting 16S rRNA and by determining the intraluminal adherent biological material (ABM) coverage.

A total of 45 TCC were investigated. The 16S rRNA qPCR technique was used to detect bacterial colonization after scraping the intraluminal ABM. Proximal, middle, and distal TCC were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the percentage (%) of intraluminal ABM coverage. All catheters were cultured following sonication.

A total of 45 TCC were removed: 7 due to CRB, 3 for suspected CRB and 35 were removed for non-infectious etiologies. Bacterial colonization was detected in 27 TCC by documenting 16S rRNA qPCR (+) results (60%). Seven of these 16S rRNA qPCR (+) catheters were removed due to CRB. There was no difference in demographic, clinical, or laboratory values between the 16S rRNA (+) versus (-) TCC. The 16S rRNA qPCR (-) outcome was highly associated with CRB-free status with negative predictive value of 100%. Bacterial colonization was documented in 10 TCC using catheter cultures (22%), which was significantly less compared to qPCR method (p = 0.0002). ABM were detected in all catheter pieces, with mean intraluminal surface coverage (ABMC) of 68.4 ± 26.1%. ABM was unlikely to be microbial biofilm in at least 36% of removed TCC as their 16S rRNA qPCR and catheter culture results were both negative.

Detecting bacterial colonization of TCC was significantly higher with 16S rRNA qPCR compared to catheter cultures. The 16S rRNA qPCR (-) cannot be predicted and was strongly associated with absence of CRB. Intraluminal ABM was not associated with microbial presence in about 1/3 of the TCC. These pieces of evidence may help to improve prophylactic strategies against CRB.

Comparing the efficacy of endovascular treatment for iliac vein compression syndrome with or without acute deep venous thrombosis: A single-center retrospective study.


To compare the efficacy of endovascular treatment for iliac vein compression syndrome (IVCS) with or without acute deep venous thrombosis of lower extremity.

This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 300 IVCS patients, who received endovascular treatment between January 2013 and December 2017. According to whether IVCS was complicated by deep venous thrombosis or not, these patients were divided into non-thrombotic iliac vein lesion group (NIVL group, n = 127) and post-thrombotic iliac vein lesion group (PIVL group, n = 173). After endovascular treatment, all patients were followed up to assess the symptoms improvement and to evaluate the patency of iliac vein.

The technical success rate was 98% (294/300), and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting was adopted in 294 cases. The incidence of perioperative complications was 36.33% (109/300), but no severe complications occurred. During a mean follow-up of 22.3 months (range 6-30 months), 9(6.82%, 9/132) patients in PIVL group had recurrence of deep venous thrombosis, but nobody had deep venous thrombosis and varicose veins recurrence in NIVL group. The effective rate of endovascular treatment in NIVL group and PIVL group was 96.88% and 90.15% (P = 0.050), while the cumulative primary patency of iliac vein in NIVL group was significantly higher than that in PIVL group (P = 0.008).

The endovascular treatment is an effective, feasible, safe method for treating IVCS. There is no difference in the efficacy of IVCS patients with or without deep venous thrombosis, but the medium and long-term patency of patients with deep venous thrombosis is lower than that in patients without deep venous thrombosis.

Optimization of factors for the prevention of spinal cord ischemia in thoracic endovascular aortic repair.


Spinal cord ischemia following thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is a devastating complication. This study seeks to demonstrate how a standardized protocol to prevent spinal cord ischemia affects incidence in patients undergoing TEVAR.

Using CPT codes 33880 and 33881, all TEVAR procedures performed at a single tertiary care center from January 2017 to December 2018 were examined. Patients who had concomitant ascending aortic repairs or a TEVAR for traumatic indications were excluded from analysis, leaving 130 TEVAR procedures. Comorbid conditions, procedural characteristics, extent of coverage, peri-procedural management strategies, and post-operative outcomes were collected and analyzed retrospectively.

One hundred thirty patients undergoing TEVAR were examined for four perioperative variables: postoperative hemoglobin greater than 10 g/dL, subclavian revascularization, preoperative spinal drain placement, and somatosensory evoked potential monitoring (SSEP). All conditions were met in 46.2% (60/130) of procedures; 37.8% (28/74) in emergent/urgent cases and 61.5% (32/52) in elective cases. Of patients who required subclavian coverage, 87.1% (54/62) underwent subclavian revascularization; 70.8% (92/130) of patients received spinal drains preoperatively; 68.5% (89/130) of patients had SSEP monitoring; 73.8% (93/130) of patients obtained a postoperative hemoglobin of >10 g/dL. Out of all patients, two (1.5%) developed spinal cord ischemia.

Incidence of spinal cord ischemia in our cohort was low at 1.5% (2/130). Individual and bundled interventions for the prevention of spinal cord ischemia were unable to demonstrate a statistically significant effect given the low rate. Nonetheless, we advocate for a proactive approach for the prevention of spinal cord ischemia given our experience in this complex population.

A comprehensive approach to complementary and alternative medicine usage among patients from a vascular department.


Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies had been described in patients with disabling, chronic and painful conditions; these characteristics define the majority of vascular surgery (VS) entities. A lack of disclosure about CAM use from patients has been universally cited and may impact effective patient-doctor communication. Our primary objective was to describe CAM use, modalities, perceived benefits, safety, and associated factors among adult patients attending a VS outpatient clinic; we additionally explored patient's attitudes about CAM disclosure with their primary vascular surgeon.

This cross-sectional study invited 223 consecutive outpatients to an interview where the ICAM-Q (International Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire) and the PDRQ-9 (Patient-Doctor Relationship Questionnaire-9 items) were applied. In addition, sociodemographics, vascular disease and treatment-related information, comorbidity, and disease severity characteristics were obtained. Appropriated statistics was used; multiple logistic regression analysis identified factors associated to CAM use. All statistical tests were two-sided, and a p value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. IRB approval was obtained.

Patients recruited were primary females (69%) and had a median age of 65 years (54-75). Most frequent vascular diagnoses were chronic venous insufficiency (36.2%) and peripheral artery disease (26%). There were 104 (46.6%) patients who referred CAM use, primarily self-helped practices (96%), and use of herbal, vitamins, or homeopathic medicines (23.7%). Overall, the majority of the patients perceived CAM modalities helpful and 94.6% denied any adverse event. Female sex (OR: 1.768, 95% CI: 0.997-3.135, p = 0.051) and hospitalization during the previous year (OR: 3.173, 95% CI: 1.492-6.748, p = 0.003) were associated to CAM use. The majority of the patients (77%) agreed about CAM disclosure with their primary vascular surgeon; meanwhile, among CAM users, up to 54.9% did not disclose it, and their main reasons were "Doctor didn't ask" (32%) and "I consider it unnecessary" (16%). The patient-doctor relationship was rated by the patients with high scores.

CAM use is frequent and perceived as safe and beneficial among VS outpatients; nonetheless, patients do not disclose CAM use with their primary vascular surgeons, and a wide range of reasons are given by the patients that prevent effective and open communication.

Systematic review of interventions to increase the use of arteriovenous fistulae and grafts in incident haemodialysis patients.

J Vasc Access

Patients who commence haemodialysis (HD) through arteriovenous fistulae and grafts (AVF/G) have improved survival compared to those who do so by venous lines.

This systematic review aims to assimilate the evidence for any strategy which increases the proportion of HD patients starting dialysis through AVF/G.

Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central and Scopus.

English language studies comparing any educational, clinical or service organisation intervention for adult patients with end stage renal failure and reporting incident AVF/G use.

Two reviewers assessed studies for eligibility independently. Outcome data was extracted and reported as relative risk. Reporting was performed with reference to the PRISMA statement.

Of 1272 studies, 6 were eligible for inclusion. Studies varied in design and intervention. Formal meta-analysis was not appropriate. One randomised controlled trial and two cohort studies assessed the role of a renal access coordinator. Two cohort studies assessed the implementation of qualitive initiative programmes and one cohort study assessed a national, structured education programme. Results between studies were contradictory with some reporting improvements in incident AVF/G use and some no significant difference. Quality was generally low.

It is not possible to reach firm conclusions nor make strategic recommendations. A comprehensive package of care which educates and identifies patients approaching dialysis in a timely manner may improve incident AVF/G use. An unbiased, robust comparison of different strategies for timing AVF/G referral is required.

Risk factors for catheter related thrombosis during outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy.

J Vasc Access

Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) delivery using peripherally inserted central catheters is associated with a risk of catheter related thrombosis (CRT). Individualised preventative interventions may reduce this occurrence, however patient selection is hampered by a lack of understanding of risk factors. We aimed to identify patient, infection or treatment related risk factors for CRT in the OPAT setting.

Retrospective case control study (1:3 matching) within OPAT services at two tertiary hospitals within Australia.

Over a 2 year period, encompassing OPAT delivery to 1803 patients, there were 19 cases of CRT, giving a prevalence of 1.1% and incidence of 0.58/1000 catheter days. Amongst the cases of CRT, there were nine (47%) unplanned readmissions and two (11%) pulmonary emboli. Compared to controls, cases had a higher frequency of malposition of the catheter tip (4/19 (21%) vs 0/57 (0%), p = 0.003) and complicated catheter insertion (3/19 (16%) vs 1/57 (2%), p = 0.046).

Although CRTs during OPAT are infrequent, they often have clinically significant sequelae. Identification of modifiable vascular access related predictors of CRT should assist with patient risk stratification and guide risk reduction strategies.

Arterial vascular access complication in osteogenesis imperfecta.

J Vasc Access

We present a case of the catastrophic bleeding from the femoral access site after an uncomplicated puncture in a patient with Type 1 osteogenesis i...

Lifespan of peripheral intravenous short catheters in hospitalized children: A prospective study.

J Vasc Access

To estimate the recommended lifespan of 223 peripheral intravenous accesses in pediatric services.

In this cohort study, we monitored the time of intravenous catheter between insertion and removal in children aged up to 15 years old in a Hospital from Bogotá-Colombia. The routine catheter observations was registered in questionnaires during nursing shifts. Survival analyses were performed to analyze the lifespan of the catheter free of complications.

The median lifespan of peripheral intravenous catheters without complications was 129 h (IQR 73.6-393.4 h). This median time free from complications was much lower for children ⩽1 year 98.3 h (IQR 63-141 h), than for participants aged >1 year 207.4 h (IQR 100-393 h). Catheters of 24 G (gauge) caliber had a median complication free time of 128 h (IQR 69-207 h) and 22 G calibers 144 h (IQR 103-393 h).

In this study, 75% of peripheral indwell catheters remained free from complications for 74 h, the other extreme 25% of these patients could remain up to 393 h.

Reverse tapered versus non-tapered peripherally inserted central catheters: A narrative review.

J Vasc Access

Introduced over 20 years ago, the reverse tapering design for PICC catheters is supposed to have some benefits in terms of both efficacy and safety...

Effect of intra-arterial vasodilator administration during radial artery access on systemic blood pressure in patients receiving moderate sedation.

J Vasc Access

The hemodynamic effects of intra-arterial vasodilator administration for the prevention of radial artery spasm during transradial access have not been well characterized. This study evaluates the effect of intra-arterial Verapamil and Nitroglycerine administration on systemic blood pressure and its correlation with timing of moderate sedation administration.

Institutional review board approval was granted. Patients who underwent transradial access from 4/2018 to 4/2019 and received both intra-arterial vasodilators and moderate sedation were identified and their electronic medical records reviewed. Patients were divided into three cohorts based on the timing of sedation and intra-arterial vasodilator administration. Decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) was expressed as means with standard deviation which were then compared using Student's t-test.

A total of 84 patients who met inclusion criteria demonstrated an overall mean decrease in SBP of 16.45 mmHg ± 15.45 mmHg. Patients receiving sedation and intra-arterial vasodilators within their expected peak SBP effect times had similar SBP change following the intra-arterial vasodilators as those in whom the interval was greater than 10 min (4.2 mmHg; 95% CI (-4.11 to 12.52), p = 0.3171). Two patients experienced asymptomatic hypotension.

Patients undergoing transradial access for procedures utilizing moderate sedation can safely receive intra-arterial Verapamil and Nitroglycerine for prevention of radial artery spasm.

Concurrent Ilio-Enteric and Ilio-Vesical Fistula From Large Aorto-Iliac Aneurysm.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

Iliac artery aneurysms (IAA) are associated frequently with abdominal aortic (AAA) and other degenerative large-vessel aneurysms. Concurrent fistul...

Splenic Artery Embolization for Treatment of Iatrogenic Kasabach-Merritt Phenomenon Following Failed Endovascular Splenic Artery Aneurysm Repair.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

Stent grafts are utilized to treat and exclude visceral arterial aneurysms while preserving flow through the vessel. Stent-associated thrombocytope...