The latest medical research on Vascular Surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about vascular surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Quality of Surgery and Outcome in Localized Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Treated Within an International Intergroup Randomized Clinical Trial of Adjuvant Imatinib.

JAMA Surgery

The association between quality of surgery and overall survival in patients affected by localized gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) is not completely understood.

To assess the risk of death with and without imatinib according to microscopic margins status (R0/R1) using data from a randomized study on adjuvant imatinib.

This is a post hoc observational study on patients included in the randomized, open-label, phase III trial, performed between December 2004 and October 2008. Median follow-up was 9.1 years (IQR, 8-10 years). The study was performed at 112 hospitals in 12 countries. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of primary GIST, with intermediate or high risk of relapse; no evidence of residual disease after surgery; older than 18 years; and no prior malignancies or concurrent severe/uncontrolled medical conditions. Data were analyzed between July 17, 2017, and March 1, 2020.

Patients were randomized after surgery to either receive imatinib (400 mg/d) for 2 years or no adjuvant treatment. Randomization was stratified by center, risk category (high vs intermediate), tumor site (gastric vs other), and quality of surgery (R0 vs R1). Tumor rupture was included in the R1 category but also analyzed separately.

Primary end point of this substudy was overall survival (OS), estimated using Kaplan-Meier method and compared between R0/R1 using Cox models adjusted for treatment and stratification factors.

A total of 908 patients were included; 51.4% were men (465) and 48.6% were women (440), and the median age was 59 years (range, 18-89 years). One hundred sixty-two (17.8%) had an R1 resection, and 97 of 162 (59.9%) had tumor rupture. There was a significant difference in OS for patients undergoing an R1 vs R0 resection, overall (hazard ratio [HR], 2.05; 95% CI, 1.45-2.89) and by treatment arm (HR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.37-3.75 with adjuvant imatinib and HR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.16-2.99 without adjuvant imatinib). When tumor rupture was excluded, this difference in OS between R1 and R0 resections disappeared (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.54-2.01).

The difference in OS by quality of surgery with or without imatinib was associated with the presence of tumor rupture. When the latter was excluded, the presence of R1 margins was not associated with worse OS.

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00103168.

Association of Personality and Thinking Style With Effective Surgical Coaching.

JAMA Surgery

While interest in surgical coaching programs is rising, there is no objective method for selecting effective surgical coaches.

To identify a quantitative measure to determine who will be an effective surgical coach.

This prospective cohort study included coaches and coachees from 2 statewide peer surgical coaching programs: the Wisconsin Surgical Coaching Program and the Michigan Bariatric Surgical Collaborative coaching program. Data were collected from April 2014 to February 2018, and analysis began August 2018.

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator was administered to coaches and coachees, and the Life Styles Inventory was administered to surgical coaches before their first coaching session.

Coach performance in the first coaching session and all coaching sessions using the Wisconsin Surgical Coaching Rubric.

Twenty-three surgical coaches and 38 coachees combined for a total of 65 unique pairs and 106 coaching sessions. Overall, 22 of 23 coaches (96%) and 32 of 38 coachees (84%) were men. An increase in a coach's Life Styles Inventory constructive style score correlated with an increase in overall coach performance for the first coaching session (r = 0.70; P = .002). Similarity in the coaching pair's Myers-Briggs Type Indicator judging/perceiving dichotomy was also associated with an increase in overall coach performance for their first coaching session (β = 0.38; P = .02). When all sessions were included in the analysis, these objective measures were no longer associated with coach performance.

Surgeons of all personalities and thinking styles can become an effective coach with appropriate training and experience. Coach training can be tailored to support diverse behavioral styles and preferences to maximize coach effectiveness.

Reliability of cutaneous landmarks for the catheter length assessment during peripherally inserted central catheter insertion: A retrospective observational study.

J Vasc Access

Peripherally inserted central catheters are very common devices for short, medium and long-term therapies. Their performance is strictly dependent on the correct tip location, at the junction between the upper caval vein and the right atrium. It is very important to obtain an estimated measure of the catheter, in order to reach the cavo-atrial junction and optimize the catheter length. Estimated measures are often obtained using cutaneous landmarks.

Evaluate the reliability of cutaneous landmark-based length estimation during catheter insertion. Identify any patient's related factors that may affect cutaneous landmarks reliability.

We used two distinct techniques and collected data about cutaneous landmark-based length estimation, electrocardiographic guided intravascular length, age, weight and height. We studied the reliability of possible correcting factors, balancing the error average by regression models, and we found and tested two different models of prediction.

A total number of 519 patients were studied. The average bias, between the two studied length assessment by cutaneous landmarks and electrocardiographic guided catheter length, were 3.77 ± 2.44 cm and 3.28 ± 2.57 cm, respectively. The analysed prediction models (deviance explained 43.5%, Akaike information criterion = 1313.67% and 43.4%, Akaike information criterion = 1313.92), fitted on the validation set, showed a root mean square error of 3.07 and 3.06.

Landmark-based length estimation for preventive catheter length assessment seems to be unreliable, when associated with post-procedural tip location. They are useful for distal trimming catheters to optimize the 'out of skin' portion when associated with electrocardiographic tip location. Models identified for balancing bias are probably not useful.

Comparing Methods to Determine the Minimal Clinically Important Differences in Patient-Reported Outcome Measures for Veterans Undergoing Elective Total Hip or Knee Arthroplasty in Veterans Health Administration Hospitals.

JAMA Surgery

The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) is the smallest change that patients perceive as beneficial. Accurate MCIDs are required when PROMs are used to evaluate the value of surgical interventions.

To use well-defined distribution-based and anchor-based methods to calculate MCIDs in the Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) and in the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) for veterans undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty.

A prospective cohort study was conducted of 858 patients undergoing total joint replacement between March 16, 2015, and March 9, 2017, at 3 high-complexity Veterans Affairs Medical Centers.

Patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty were administered HOOS or KOOS PROMs prior to and 1 year after surgery. The Self-Administered Patient Satisfaction Scale (SAPS) for primary hip or knee arthroplasty was administered at 1-year follow-up as an anchor PROM.

The HOOS and KOOS before and 1 year after surgery, change scores (difference between postoperative and preoperative PROM scores), and MCIDs for each measure. For anchor-based methods, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed, including calculation of the area under the curve.

The mean (SD) age of the 271 patients who underwent hip arthroplasty was 65.6 (8.3) years, and the mean (SD) age of the 587 patients who underwent knee arthroplasty was 66.1 (8.2) years. There were 547 men in the knee arthroplasty cohort and 256 men in the hip arthroplasty cohort (total, 803 men). There were significant improvements in the mean values of every PROM, with mean (SD) differences greater than 39 for HOOS Joint Replacement (JR) and every hip subscale (HOOS JR, 39.7 [20.2]; pain, 47.6 [20.5]; symptoms, 45.1 [21.5]; activities of daily living, 43.7 [22.1]; recreation, 49.2 [33.5]; quality of life, 50.3 [27.8]) and mean (SD) differences greater than 29 for KOOS JR and every knee subscale (KOOS JR, 30.4 [17.5]; pain, 38.0 [20.4]; symptoms, 29.5 [22.1]; activities of daily living, 34.8 [20.5]; recreation, 34.6 [31.1]; quality of life, 35.2 [26.8]). Different calculation methods yielded a wide range of MCIDs. Distribution-based approaches tended to give lower values than the anchor-based approaches, which gave similar values for most PROMs. Area under the curve values demonstrated good to excellent discrimination for SAPS for nearly all PROMs.

Minimal clinically important difference estimates can be highly variable depending on the method used. Patient satisfaction measured by SAPS is a suitable anchor for the HOOS and KOOS. This study suggests that the SAPS-anchored MCID values presented here be used in future studies of total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty for veterans.

Nitinol stent-assisted maturation of the dysfunctional cannulation zone in the immature arteriovenous fistula.

J Vasc Access

The native arteriovenous fistula may remain immature despite adequate arterial inflow after formation. This may occur when the puncturable vein segment (cannulation zone) is too small to be reliably punctured, occluded or too deep under the skin for needle access. We performed stenting (stent-assisted maturation) of arteriovenous fistulas with an immature cannulation zone, allowing for a large subcutaneous channel which could then be immediately punctured for dialysis.

We performed a retrospective review of 49 patients (mean age was 58.7 ± 16.09 (12-83) years, mean arteriovenous fistula age of 162.6 ± 27.28 days) with end-stage renal failure who underwent balloon dilatation and bare-metal stent implantation (1.6 ± 0.67 (1-3) stents, median diameter and length of 8 (5-14) mm and 80 (40-150) mm, respectively) through their cannulation zone (forced maturation). Radiocephalic (35 arteriovenous fistulas), brachiocephalic (10 arteriovenous fistulas) and autogenous loop arteriovenous fistulas (4 arteriovenous fistulas) were included with 30 patients (61.2%) having an inadequate cannulation zone venous diameter, 9 patients (18.4%) having an absent cannulation zone and 10 patients (20.4%) having a patent cannulation zone deeper than 1 cm which was not reliably puncturable. The study was conducted over 9 years (January 2008-December 2016) with implantation of the SMART® stent and Absolute Pro® stent in 61.2% and 38.8%, respectively. Long-term outcomes including primary useable segmental and access circuit patency as well as assisted primary access circuit patency, rate of re-intervention, technical success and complications were analysed.

At 6 months, 12 months and 4 years, respectively, cannulation zone primary patency was 84.4%, 74.4% and 56.1% and access circuit primary patency was 62.2%, 45.3% and 23.2%; however, assisted primary access circuit patency was 95.6%, 91.1% and 83.8%, achieved with an endovascular re-intervention rate of 0.53 procedures/year with only four thrombosed circuits occurring.

Forced maturation using nitinol stents allows for long-term haemodialysis access with a low rate of re-intervention.

Factors affecting superficial vein visibility at the upper limb in healthy young adults: A cross-sectional observational study.

J Vasc Access

Venipuncture is an invasive procedure, and repeated puncture attempts may be uncomfortable or even traumatic for patients. Vein visibility is one of the most influential variables for the failure of venipuncture; however, the factors affecting vein visibility remain unclear. The present study was conducted to identify the factors influencing vein visibility at the upper limb in healthy young adults.

Twenty-seven healthy volunteers were included. All measurements were performed at the right arm, right cubital fossa, and right forearm. The depth and cross-sectional area of superficial veins were measured by ultrasonography. Skin color was assessed by a spectrophotometer and quantified according to Commission International d'Eclairage L*a*b* values.

Invisible superficial veins were significantly deeper and had a larger cross-sectional area than visible superficial veins. Skin color b* of invisible superficial veins was significantly higher than that of visible superficial veins. Vein depth, skin color b*, and gender markedly affected superficial vein visibility at the upper limb. The cutoff for vein depth was 2.3 mm (area under the curve = 0.91).

The present results confirmed that vein depth, skin color b*, and gender strongly influenced vein visibility at the upper limb. The cutoff for vein depth was 2.3 mm.

Recovery from ischemic monomelic neuropathy after delayed ligation of dialysis access.

J Vasc Access

Ischemic monomelic neuropathy is characterized by acute painful muscle weakness shortly after access creation and neuronal axon loss without adjace...

Robotic Inguinal vs Transabdominal Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair: The RIVAL Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Surgery

Despite rapid adoption of the robotic platform for inguinal hernia repair in the US, to date, no level I trials have ever compared robotic inguinal hernia repair to laparoscopic repair. This multicenter randomized clinical trial is the first to compare the robotic platform to laparoscopic approach for minimally invasive inguinal hernia repair.

To determine whether the robotic approach to inguinal hernia repair results in improved postoperative outcomes compared with traditional laparoscopic inguinal hernia repairs.

This multicenter, single-blinded, prospective randomized clinical pilot study was conducted from April 2016 to April 2019, with a follow-up duration of 30 days in 6 academic and academic-affiliated sites. Enrolled in this study were 113 patients with a unilateral primary or recurrent inguinal hernia. After exclusions 102 remained for analysis.

Standard laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal repair or robotic transabdominal preperitoneal repair.

Main outcomes included postoperative pain, health-related quality of life, mobility, wound morbidity, and cosmesis. Secondary outcomes included cost, surgeon ergonomics, and surgeon mental workload. A primary outcome was not selected because this study was designed as a pilot study. The hypothesis was formulated prior to data collection.

A total of 102 patients were included in the study (54 in the laparoscopic group, mean [SD] age, 57.2 [13.3] years and 48 [88.9%] male; 48 in the robotic group, mean [SD] age, 56.1 [14.1] years and 44 [91.6%] male). There were no differences at the preoperative, 1-week, or 30-day points between the groups in terms of wound events, readmissions, pain as measured by the Visual Analog Scale, or quality of life as measured by the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. Compared with traditional laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair, robotic transabdominal preperitoneal repair was associated with longer median (interquartile range) operative times (75.5 [59.0-93.8] minutes vs 40.5 [29.2-63.8] minutes, respectively; P < .001), higher median (interquartile range) cost ($3258 [$2568-$4118] vs $1421 [$1196-$1930], respectively; P < .001), and higher mean (SD) frustration levels on the NASA Task Load Index Scale (range, 1-100, with lower scores indicating lower cognitive workload) (32.7 [23.5] vs 20.1 [19.2], respectively; P = .004). There were no differences in ergonomics of the surgeons between the groups as measured by the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment instrument.

Results of this study showed no clinical benefit to the robotic approach to straightforward inguinal hernia repair compared with the laparoscopic approach. The robotic approach incurred higher costs and more operative time compared with the laparoscopic approach, with added surgeon frustration and no ergonomic benefit to surgeons.

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02816658.

Association Between American Board of Surgery Initial Certification and Risk of Receiving Severe Disciplinary Actions Against Medical Licenses.

JAMA Surgery

Board certification is used as a marker of surgeon quality and professionalism. Although some research has linked certification in surgery to outcomes, more research is needed.

To measure associations between surgeons obtaining American Board of Surgery (ABS) certification and examination performance with receiving future severe disciplinary actions against their medical licenses.

Retrospective analysis of severe license action rates for surgeons who attempted ABS certification based on certification status and examination performance. Surgeons who attempted to become certified were classified as certified or failing to obtain certification. Additionally, groups were further categorized based on whether the surgeon had to repeat examinations and whether they ultimately passed. The study included surgeons who initially attempted certification between 1976 and 2017 (n = 44 290). Severe license actions from 1976 to 2018 were obtained from the Federation of State Medical Boards, and certification data were obtained from the ABS database. Data were analyzed between 1978 and 2008.

Severe license action rates were analyzed across certified surgeons and those failing to obtain certification, as well as across examination performance groups.

The final dataset included 36 197 men (81.7%) and 8093 women (18.3%). The incidence of severe license actions was significantly greater for surgeons who attempted and failed to obtain certification (incidence rate per 1000 person-years = 2.49; 95% CI, 2.13-2.85) than surgeons who were certified (incidence rate per 1000 person years = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.71-0.83). Adjusting for sex and international medical graduate status, the risk of receiving a severe license action across time was also significantly greater for surgeons who failed to obtain certification. Surgeons who progressed further in the certification examination sequence and had fewer repeated examinations had a lower incidence and less risk over time of receiving severe license actions.

Obtaining board certification was associated with a lower rate of receiving severe license actions from a state medical board. Passing examinations in the certification examination process on the first attempt was also associated with lower severe license action rates. This study provides supporting evidence that board certification is 1 marker of surgeon quality and professionalism.

Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachiocephalic vein catheterization in children: Syringe-free in-plane technique with micro-convex probe.

J Vasc Access

Central venous catheterization of children is often a challenging procedure due to small anatomical structures. Ultrasound guidance has been shown ...

A case of unexpected peripherally inserted central catheter removal from a colorectal cancer patient with cetuximab-induced skin toxicity and contact dermatitis at the peripherally inserted central catheter insertion site: Should we recommend the patient to choose subcutaneous port preferentially?

J Vasc Access

Obtaining central venous access is one of the most commonly performed procedures in cancer patients. However, there are very limited data to guide clinicians when selecting a device for metastatic colorectal cancer patients who received cetuximab.

A 54-year-old male patient with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab plus FOLFIRI used peripherally inserted central catheter as intravenous pathway. After eight cycles, the patient suffered cetuximab-induced grade 2 skin toxicity and grade 3 contact dermatitis at the peripherally inserted central catheter insertion site. Finally, he removed the peripherally inserted central catheter and accepted subcutaneous port instead for 2 years without implantation cutaneous complication.

We suggest that metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with cetuximab should be recommended to choose subcutaneous port preferentially to avoid potential risk of unexpected peripherally inserted central catheter removal due to cetuximab-induced skin toxicity or contact dermatitis. Further clinical practices and researches are needed for more profound evidences for better practical suggestions.

Analysis of factors for post-percutaneous transluminal angioplasty primary patency rate in hemodialysis vascular access.

J Vasc Access

Although percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has been established as a first-line therapy for access failure in dialysis, there are few reports on primary patency after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. We investigated factors associated with primary patency following the first percutaneous transluminal angioplasty performed after vascular access construction in patients with arteriovenous fistula, including blood flow volume before and after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and previously reported factors.

We used medical records at six dialysis centers to retrospectively identify and analyze prognostic factors for primary patency after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in 159 patients with arteriovenous fistula who underwent initial percutaneous transluminal angioplasty after vascular access construction.

Multivariate analysis with the Cox proportional hazard model showed that primary patency after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in patients with arteriovenous fistula was significantly associated with lesion length (hazard ratio, 1.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-3.07; P = 0.045), and blood flow volume after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.84; P < 0.001). When blood flow volume after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty was classified into three categories, risks of outcome events defining the end of primary patency after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty were significantly lower for 400-630 mL/min (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.21-0.68; P = 0.001) and >630 mL/min (hazard ratio, 0.16; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.40; P < 0.001) compared with <400 mL/min.

Our study showed that blood flow volume after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is an important prognostic factor for primary patency after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in patients with arteriovenous fistula.