The latest medical research on Vascular Surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about vascular surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Optimizing the Implementation of Surgical Coaching Through Feedback From Practicing Surgeons.

JAMA Surgery

Surgical coaching is maturing as a tangible strategy for surgeons' continuing professional development. Resources to spread this innovation are not yet widely available.

To identify surgeon-derived implementation recommendations for surgical coaching programs from participants' exit interviews and ratings of their coaching interactions.

This qualitative analysis of the Surgical Coaching for Operative Performance Enhancement (SCOPE) program, a quality improvement intervention, was conducted at 4 US academic medical centers. Participants included 46 practicing surgeons. The SCOPE program ran from December 7, 2018, to October 31, 2019. Data were analyzed from November 1, 2019, to January 31, 2020.

Surgeons were assigned as either a coach or a coachee, and each coach was paired with 1 coachee by a local champion who knew the surgeons professionally. Coaching pairs underwent training and were instructed to complete 3 coaching sessions-consisting of preoperative goal setting, intraoperative observation, and postoperative debriefing-focused on intraoperative performance.

Themes from the participants' exit interviews covering 3 major domains: (1) describing the experience, (2) coach-coachee relationship, and (3) facilitators and barriers to implementing surgical coaching. Surgeons' responses were stratified by the net promoter score (NPS), a scale ranging from 0 to 10 points, indicating how likely they were to recommend their coaching session to others, with 9 to 10 indicating promoters; 7 to 8, passives; and 0 to 6, detractors.

Among the 46 participants (36 men [78.3%]), 23 were interviewed (50.0%); thematic saturation was reached with 5 coach-coachee pairs (10 interviews). Overall, coaches and coachees agreed on key implementation recommendations for surgical coaching, including how to optimize coach-coachee relationships and facilitate productive coaching sessions. The NPS categories were associated with how participants experienced their own coaching sessions. Specifically, participants who reported excellent first sessions, had a coaching partner in the same clinical specialty, and were transparent about each other's intentions in the program tended to be promoters. Participants who described suboptimal first sessions, less clinical overlap, and unclear goals with their partner were more likely detractors.

These exit interviews with practicing surgeons offer critical insights for addressing cultural barriers and practical challenges for successful implementation of peer coaching programs focused on surgical performance improvement. With empirical evidence on optimizing coach-coachee relationships and facilitating participants' experience, organizations can establish effective coaching programs that enable meaningful continuous professional development for surgeons and ultimately enhance patient care.

Long-term Oncologic Outcomes of Immediate Breast Reconstruction vs Conventional Mastectomy Alone for Breast Cancer in the Setting of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

JAMA Surgery

An increasing number of patients with breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) undergo immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) with nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) or skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) as surgical treatment. However, the oncologic efficacy and safety of this treatment sequencing strategy is unclear.

To compare the long-term oncologic outcomes of IBR with NSM/SSM and conventional mastectomy (CM) alone for breast cancer in the NACT setting.

A retrospective, propensity score-matched case-control study was conducted at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. A total of 1266 patients with breast cancer who underwent NACT followed by mastectomy with or without breast reconstruction between January 1, 2010, and November 30, 2016, were included. Data analysis was performed from July 1, 2019, to January 24, 2020. After propensity score matching, 323 patients who underwent IBR with NSM/SSM and 323 who underwent CM alone were selected for comparison of long-term oncologic outcomes.

The 5-year local recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using log-rank tests. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards regression model.

After matching, the median follow-up periods were 67 (range, 17-125) months for the IBR group and 68 (range, 17-126) months for the CM-alone group. Median age of the women in the IBR group was 42 (range, 23-72) years; median age of those in the CM-alone group was 46 (range, 30-75) years. No significant differences were observed between the IBR and CM-alone groups in local recurrence (3.7% vs 3.4%; P = .83), regional recurrence (7.1% vs 5.3%; P = .33), or distant metastasis (17.3% vs 18.6%; P = .68) rates. There was also no significant difference between the IBR and CM-alone groups in 5-year local recurrence-free survival (95.6% vs 96.7%; HR, 1.124; 95% CI, 0.495-2.549; P = .78), disease-free survival (76.5% vs 79.9%; HR, 1.089; 95% CI, 0.790-1.500; P = .60), distant metastasis-free survival (82.5% vs 82.5%; HR, 0.941; 95% CI, 0.654-1.355; P = .74), or overall survival (92.0% vs 89.3%; HR, 0.847; 95% CI, 0.530-1.353; P = .49) rates.

The long-term oncologic outcomes of IBR with NSM/SSM for breast cancer in this study appeared to be comparable to those of CM alone after NACT, suggesting the feasibility of IBR with NSM/SSM in the NACT setting.

Evaluation and Treatment of Patients With Hypercortisolism: A Review.

JAMA Surgery

With the potential for severe adverse effects of hypercortisolism, the need to limit the development and unrecognized persistence of sequelae from cortisol excess is of great importance on individual and population health levels. This review discusses the evaluation and treatment of patients with hypercortisolism. Pathophysiology; pitfalls in the diagnosis of hypercortisolism; and preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative management considerations are discussed. The association of hypercortisolism with population health and the potential role surgeons and surgery can play in the future of patients with hypercortisolism are also discussed. Higher-level considerations are put forth to encourage a long-term view of future work needed to optimally care for these patients.

Although classic signs and symptoms of hypercortisolism are evident in some patients, mild autonomous cortisol secretion is likely more prevalent and more difficult to detect despite having the potential to cause significant adverse effects, such as increased risk of mortality, and overt hypercortisolism. With treatment, some adverse effects of hypercortisolism may resolve, although not in all patients. Thus, the need for early diagnosis and treatment is of great importance.

More attention in the future on early treatment of hypercortisolism, whether subclinical or overt, and prevention of adverse effects is warranted for the sake of the individual and the population.

Endovascular Repair of Symptomatic Right Subclavian and Innominate Artery Aneurysms Arising From a "Bovine Arch" in a Patient With a "Hostile" Chest.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

Symptomatic aneurysms of the innominate and subclavian arteries are rare and pose unique challenges for endovascular repair particularly in a patie...

Early Characteristics and Progression of Blunt Traumatic Aortic Injuries at a Single Level I Trauma Center.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

The most widely accepted grading system for blunt traumatic aortic injury (BTAI) by the Society of Vascular Surgery (SVS) recommends endovascular repair for grade 2 and greater. Non-operative management in grade 2 injuries has been shown to be reasonable in certain circumstances. The natural history of low-grade injuries (1, 2) when managed non-operatively is not well defined.

Utilizing our trauma registry, patients from 2013 to 2016 with blunt traumatic injury who underwent initial computed tomography were identified. Aortic pathology was graded and grouped by SVS classification. Clinical courses were reviewed for timing of interventions, repeat imaging, concurrent injuries, and outcomes. Analysis of variance and Chi-square tests of significance were utilized to compare between groups.

Out of 10,178 patients, we identified 32 with BTAI (grade: 1 (n = 13), 2 (n = 5), 3 (n = 3), 4 (n = 11)). High-grade injuries (3, 4) resulted only from motor vehicle, motorcycle, and pedestrian mechanisms. Initially, 9 patients (28%) required intervention, 5 (16%) were treated non-operatively, and 18 (56%) underwent repeat imaging. On repeat imaging, injuries that did not resolve remained stable and no injuries were found to progress. Of these patients, 9 (50%) required delayed intervention and 9 (50%) successfully underwent non-operative management. Patients with low-grade injuries were more likely to have successful non-operative management than those with high-grade injuries (72% vs 7%; p < 0.01).

While low-grade injuries generally have good outcomes, some ultimately do require delayed intervention, and short-term imaging is not reliable in identifying these cases.

Comparison between PeRcutanEous and surgical femoral aCcess for endovascuLar aOrtic repair in patientS with typE III aortic Dissection (PRECLOSE Trial).

Vascular

Aortic dissections are cardiovascular events with high mortality and morbidity rates. Management might be either with medical or interventional approach. Recently, thoracic endovascular intervention (TEVAR) becomes the first treatment of choice because of its better results and lower rates of complications in patients with type III aortic dissections. The intervention might be performed via femoral artery either with percutaneous or with surgical approach. Because of large sheath insertion to femoral artery, Pre-close technique is described in literature. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the outcomes and safety of 'Pre-close technique' to surgical approach in patients with type III aortic dissections who underwent TEVAR with femoral access ≥22 F.

A total of 96 patients whom had type III aortic dissection and was performed TEVAR were retrospectively included in the study. Fifty-six patients had TEVAR with percutaneous approach and these patients are named as P-TEVAR group, and 40 patients had TEVAR with surgical approach and these patients are named as S-TEVAR group. Pre- and post-procedural data with complications and procedural data during TEVAR were evaluated for both groups and compared in between.

The main finding was that there was no significant difference between S-TEVAR and P-TEVAR groups in terms of complications and technical success. Operating room time was significantly decreased in P-TEVAR group (P < 0.001). Overall success rate for femoral approach in patients with Pre-close technique was 94.6% and was 100% for surgical approach. P-TEVAR group had post-operative complications in three patients and S-TEVAR group had in four patients.

Total percutaneous approach with Pre-close technique using Pro-Glide device is a safe and feasible method of femoral access in patients with type III aortic dissections.

Paclitaxel exposure and long-term mortality of patients treated with the Zilver PTX drug-eluting stent.

Vascular

Paclitaxel-eluting stents have demonstrated improved patency over balloon angioplasty and bare metal stenting for endovascular interventions in the femoral-popliteal segment. Recently, concerns have arisen regarding the safety of paclitaxel use and its association with mortality. This study aims to examine real-world, long-term mortality, and patency of patients treated with the Zilver PTX drug-eluting stent.

Patients treated with the PTX stent after FDA approval between 2013 and 2015 were identified from an institutional database. Demographic, procedural, and device information was collected and initial- and lifetime-exposure dose of paclitaxel was calculated. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and its association with paclitaxel exposure. Long-term patency was also evaluated.

Seventy-nine procedures involving PTX placement were performed on 64 individual patients during the study period, with 15 (23.4%) having bilateral procedures. Average age was 70 years, and 71.9% were male. Forty-five patients (70.3%) were claudicants, and 19 (29.7%) had chronic, limb-threatening ischemia. An average of 2.3 PTX stents, totaling 203 mm in length, were placed per procedure. Paclitaxel exposure was 1.87 mg/procedure initially (range 0.38-4.03 mg), and average lifetime exposure was 4.65 mg/patient (range 0.38-27.91 mg). Average follow-up was 59.6 months. Kaplan-Meier estimated survival was 96.9%, 81.2% and 71.7% at one , three, and five years. On multivariate analysis, no specific factors were associated with overall morality including initial paclitaxel dose (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.99-1.00) and lifetime paclitaxel exposure (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.89-1.08). Kaplan-Meier primary patency was 76.2%, 60.1%, and 29.3% at one, two, and five years, respectively. Secondary patency was 92.2%, 85.4%, and 75.2% at the same intervals.

At a mean follow-up of five years, exposure to higher doses of paclitaxel from Zilver PTX does not appear to be associated with increased mortality compared to lower doses in real-world patients. Long-term patency rates confirm the efficacy of Zilver PTX, and further investigation may be warranted before abandoning paclitaxel use altogether.

The challenge of maintaining necessary vascular and endovascular services at a referral center in Northern Italy during the COVID-19 outbreak.

Vascular

The Padova Hospital Vascular Surgery Division is located in Veneto, one of the area of the Northern Italy most hit by the Coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak. The aim of this paper is to describe the protocols adopted and to evaluate their impact during the acute phase of Coronavirus spread, focusing on the management of elective and urgent/emergent surgery, outpatients activity, and also health staff preservation from intra-hospital Coronavirus disease 2019 infection.

Several measures were progressively adopted in the Padova University Hospital to front the Coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak, with a clear strong asset established by 9 March 2020, after the Northern Italy lockdown. Since this date, the Vascular Surgery Unit started a "scaled-down" activity, both for elective surgical procedures and for the outpatient Clinical activities; different protocols were developed for health preservation of staff and patients. We compared a two months period, 30 days before and 30 days after this time point. In particular, emergent vascular surgery was regularly guaranteed as well as urgent surgery (to be performed within 24 h). Elective cases were scheduled for "non-deferrable" pathology. A swab test protocol for COVID-19 was applied to health-care professionals and hospitalized patients.

The number of urgent or emergent aortic cases remained stable during the two months period, while the number of Hospital admissions via Emergency Room related to critical limb ischemia decreased after national lockdown by about 20%. Elective vascular surgery was scaled down by 50% starting from 9 March; 35% of scheduled elective cases refused hospitalization during the lockdown period and 20% of those contacted for hospitalization where postponed due to fever, respiratory symptoms, or close contacts with Coronavirus disease 2019 suspected cases. Elective surgery reduction did not negatively influence overall carotid or aortic outcomes, while we reported a higher major limb amputation rate for critical limb ischemia (about 10%, compared to 4% for the standard practice period). We found that 4 out of 98 (4%) health-care providers on the floor had an asymptomatic positive swab test. Among 22 vascular doctors, 3 had a confirmed Coronavirus disease 2019 infection (asymptomatic); a total of 72 swab were performed (mean = 3.4 swab/person/month) during this period; no cases of severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (deaths or requiring intensive care treatment) infection were reported within this period for the staff or hospitalized patients.

Elective vascular surgery needs to be guaranteed as possible during Coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak. The number of truly emergent cases did not reduce, on the other side, Emergency Room accesses for non-emergent cases decreased. Our preliminary results seem to describe a scenario where, if the curve of the outbreak in the regional population is flattened, in association with appropriate hospitals containment rules, it may be possible to continue the activity of the Vascular Surgery Units and guarantee the minimal standard of care.

Clinical outcomes from profundoplasty performed as a sole procedure for revascularization in critically ischaemic limbs.

Vascular

The aim of this study is to investigate the durability and clinical efficacy of profundoplasty as a sole procedure in patients presenting with critical limb ischaemia associated with profunda femoral artery disease and superficial femoral artery occlusion.

Retrospective analysis of outcomes from all patients who underwent surgical profundoplasty in a single tertiary referral centre was performed. Patients who presented with either rest pain or tissue loss and had combined profunda femoral artery disease and superficial femoral artery occlusion were included in the study. Outcomes were compared between the rest pain and the tissue loss groups.

Between 2009 and 2019, 51 procedures were performed in 49 patients; 27 (53%) procedures were performed for rest pain and 24 (47%) for tissue loss. Technical success was 100% in both groups. Procedure success was significantly better in the rest pain group owing to lower procedure-related complications (p = 0.037). Incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events was higher in the tissue loss group with five reported cases compared to only one in the rest pain group (p = .05); 85.2% of patients with rest pain experienced clinical improvement compared to only 33.3% in the tissue loss group (p < .001). Higher rates of re-intervention were recorded in the tissue loss group, but this was not statistically significant. Amputation-free survival at 3, 6 and 12 months was 96%, 96% and 92% in the rest pain group, respectively, compared to 77%, 67% and 54% in the tissue loss group (p = .004). At one-year, freedom from major adverse limb events was lower in patients with tissue loss at 43% compared to 81% in patients with rest pain (p = .009).

Profundoplasty performed as a sole procedure for revascularisation of the critically ischaemic limb is a viable straightforward option. However, our results suggest that it may be more effective in the treatment of rest pain rather than in the setting of tissue loss when a combined superficial femoral artery angioplasty or distal bypass may be required.

Primary leiomyosarcoma is a rare cause of femoral triangle mass: A case report.

Vascular

Primary leiomyosarcoma in the femoral vein is an extremely rare vascular disorder and is often misdiagnosed. In order to improve the knowledge and treatment of this disease, a case of leiomyosarcoma in the femoral vein was reported.

We report the case of a 58-year-old woman with a leiomyosarcoma of the femoral vein and treated successfully by surgical resection. After surgery, no recurrence had been noted follow-up.Subsequently, we reviewed information derived from 31 previously published cases from 1954 to 2019.

A total of 31 patients diagnosed with femoral vein leiomyosarcoma were presented in previous studies; in all of these patients, 14 (45.2%, 14/31) patients were men. Of these, the median age was 51.6 years old (ranging from 3 to 84).

Complete resection with adjuvant chemotherapeutic was the main strategy to treat the disease. Prognosis remains poor if metastasis was present, especially pulmonary metastasis.

Rapid Femoral Vein Assessment (RaFeVA): A systematic protocol for ultrasound evaluation of the veins of the lower limb, so to optimize the insertion of femorally inserted central catheters.

J Vasc Access

In this paper we describe a new protocol-named RaFeVA (Rapid Femoral Vein Assessment)-for the systematic US assessment of the veins in the inguinal...

Treatment of Post-Evar Aortoduodenal Fistula Without Endograft Excision.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

An 80 year-old gentleman presented with aortoduodenal fistula 2 months after uncomplicated endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Upon laparotomy and...