The latest medical research on Vascular Surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about vascular surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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A simplified technique for converting antegrade femoral access to retrograde access for catheterization.


Femoral access conversion is sometimes required in clinical practice. Various techniques have been reported to convert a retrograde femoral access to antegrade access with a high success rate. However, despite paucity of data, converting an antegrade access to retrograde access is quite challenging with a potentially higher risk of technical failure or loss of access.

Here, we report a simple technique of antegrade to retrograde access conversion utilizing a pigtail catheter and an angled Glidewire.

Successful conversion was achieved with no immediate complications with the proposed technique.

Techniques that describe antegrade to retrograde access conversion are seldomly reported in the medical literature. Our technique was successful in making the conversion utilizing only pigtail catheter and angled Glidewire.

Alternative vascular device for high-flow computed tomography angiography: ultrasound-guided long peripheral catheter (4 Fr × 10 cm).

J Vasc Access

Radiological studies that require contrast media are common and useful in the emergency department. Alternatives have been proposed for the administration of contrast agent in patients with difficulty in the insertion of vascular access. Since 2017, our institution has used a 4-Fr × 10-cm-long peripheral catheter (Leadercath; Vygon) for venous insertion. Its ultrasound-guided insertion is carried out by emergency physicians. So far, there are no reports in the literature about the use of this long peripheral catheter for computed tomography angiography.

To describe the experience with the said device, to point out the complications associated with it, and to evaluate it as an alternative way to gain vascular access for patients with limited venous access.

An observational, analytical, and retrospective study was conducted. The study included patients who received an ultrasound-guided 4-Fr × 10-cm-long peripheral catheter (Leadercath; Vygon). Transparent, radiopaque, polyethylene, 18-gauge Leadercath from Vygon, sold as peripheral arterial catheter and sometimes used "off-label" as venous catheter with a flow capacity of up to 24 mL/min, was used. The flow capacity for gravity flow is 24 mL/s; with pump-driven flow, we achieved a flow infusion of 5-6 mL/s. Univariate analyses were performed. Normality was determined through the Shapiro-Wilk test.

In total, 172 patients met the inclusion criteria. Of them, 115 (67%) were female and the average age was 59 years. The main indication for performing the computed tomography angiography was the suspicion of pulmonary embolism (38.6%). The most frequent type of computed tomography angiography study was pulmonary tomography (88 patients, 51.5%). The contrast medium infusion rate was 6 mL/s in 51.5% (n = 88) of cases, 4.5 mL/s in 36.3%, and 5 mL/s in 12.3%. One adverse event occurred.

An 18-gauge-long peripheral catheter (4 Fr × 10 cm, Leadercath; Vygon) following specific protocols appears to be safe for conducting high-flow computed tomography studies in patients with limited venous access.

Hybrid Open-Endovascular Repair in a Patient With Giant Contained Aortic Aneurysm Rupture.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

Contained rupture of an aortic aneurysm is a high-mortality condition that requires immediate repair. Open repair has been the gold standard; howev...

Peripherally inserted central catheter malposition to a persistent left superior vena cava: A successful case to leave the catheter till the end of chemotherapy.

J Vasc Access

Persistent left superior vena cava is rare and asymptomatic and is usually discovered incidentally during or after insertion of a central venous ca...

Risk factors associated with 30-day hospital readmission after carotid endarterectomy.


The current study evaluated all-cause 30-day readmissions after carotid endarterectomy.

Patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy were selected from the Cerner Health Facts® database using ICD-9-CM procedure codes from their index admission. Readmission within 30 days of discharge was determined. Chi-square analysis determined characteristics of the index admission (demographics, diagnoses, postoperative medications, and laboratory results) associated with readmission. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify characteristics independently associated with readmission.

In total, 5257 patients undergoing elective carotid endarterectomy were identified. Readmission within 30 days was 3.1%. After multivariable adjustment, readmission was associated with end-stage renal disease (OR: 3.21, 95% CI: 1.01-10.2), hemorrhage or hematoma (OR: 2.34, 95% CI: 1.15-4.77), procedural complications (OR: 3.07, 95% CI: 1.24-7.57), use of bronchodilators (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.03-2.11), increased Charlson index scores (OR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.08-1.38), and electrolyte abnormalities (hyponatremia < 135 mEq/L (OR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.07-2.67) and hypokalemia less than 3.7 mEq/L (OR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.03-4.98)).

Factors associated with readmission following carotid endarterectomy included younger age, increased comorbidity burden, end-stage renal disease, electrolyte disorders, the use of bronchodilators, and complications including bleeding (hemorrhage or hematoma). Of note, in this real-world study, only 40% of the patients received protamine, despite evidence-based literature demonstrating the reduced risk of bleeding complications. As healthcare moves towards quality of care-driven reimbursement, physician modifiable targets such as protamine utilization to reduce bleeding are greatly needed to reduce readmission, and failure to reduce preventable physician-driven complications after carotid interventions may be associated with decreased reimbursement.

A study on the management of needle-stick and sharps injuries based on total quality management in a tertiary hospital in western China.

J Vasc Access

Based on the concept of total quality management, the practice of managing needle-stick and sharps injuries was analyzed to improve nursing quality.

Using total quality management, an improvement plan was completed. Standard operating procedures for infusion therapy and monitoring of the circulatory system were made to reduce the utilization of winged metal needles and the frequency of needle-stick injuries. From 2015 to 2018, four cross-sectional surveys were conducted on the use of winged metal needles, peripheral intravenous catheters, central venous catheters, peripherally inserted central catheters, and implantable venous access ports and the status of needle-stick and sharps injuries in our hospital during the 4 years.

Four cross-sectional surveys showed that the percentage of winged metal needle utilization decreased significantly from 13% to 0.5%, and that of peripheral intravenous catheters increased from 77% to 87%. Zero tolerance of winged metal needles increased from 33 to 60 nursing units, an improvement rate of 81.82%. The number of needle-stick injuries decreased from 71 to 21, a decrease of 70.42%. Needle-stick injuries occurred mainly during waste disposal (34.71%) and needle withdrawal (18.18%) and when recapping needles (9.92%).

Based on total quality management, the implementation of zero tolerance of winged metal needles is much better. The use of winged metal needles and the incidence of needle-stick injuries are reduced. Total quality management is of great clinical value in preventing needle-stick injuries.

Preliminary balloon dilation of both saphenous fascia and the saphenous vein increases the below-knee fistula patency, but not maturation.

J Vasc Access

There is no reliable secondary site for fistula creation in patients with preclusions for further use of upper extremity vessels as viable hemodialysis access. Below-knee vessels resemble the forearm vascular anatomy and, therefore, methods to improve the outcomes of fistula creation at this level would also help to improve the quality of life for those patients. The aim of the present study was to examine the efforts to improve the functionality of below-knee fistulas in a sample of dialysis patients.

We retrospectively evaluated the results of ankle fistulas created following preliminary balloon dilatation of both the saphenous fascia and the saphenous vein in 11 patients who were considered eligible if they did not have concomitant venous or arterial lower extremity disease. We assessed the changes in fistula flow within 6 months as well as patency and maturation rates.

Though the patency rate at 6 months was 63.6% (seven patients), only three fistulas (27.3%) were used for routine dialysis. All mature fistulas were observed in patients with a preoperative posterior tibial artery flow of more than 35 mL/min.

Saphenous vein dilation throughout the below-knee promotes fistula patency, but the posterior tibial artery shows inadequate response as an inflow supplier at the ankle level. More proximal connection of saphenous vein after balloon dilation may be used in the future to achieve adequate flow from leg arteries.

Delayed pericardial tamponade following central venous recanalization.

J Vasc Access

A patient with central venous occlusion at the junction of the superior vena cava and right atrium underwent endovascular revascularization. The le...

GAVeCeLT-WoCoVA Consensus on subcutaneously anchored securement devices for the securement of venous catheters: Current evidence and recommendations for future research.

J Vasc Access

Subcutaneously anchored securement devices (or subcutaneous engineered securement devices) have been introduced recently into the clinical practice, but the number of published studies is still scarce. The Italian Group of Long-Term Central Venous Access Devices (GAVeCeLT)-in collaboration with WoCoVA (World Congress on Vascular Access)-has developed a Consensus about the effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of such devices.

After the definition of a panel of experts, a systematic collection and review of the literature on subcutaneously anchored securement devices was performed. The panel has been divided in two working groups, one focusing on adult patients and the other on children and neonates.

Although the quality of evidence is generally poor, since it is based mainly on non-controlled prospective studies, the panel has concluded that subcutaneously anchored securement devices are overall effective in reducing the risk of dislodgment and they appear to be safe in all categories of patients, being associated only with rare and negligible local adverse effects; cost-effectiveness is demonstrated-or highly likely-in specific populations of patients with long-term venous access and/or at high risk of dislodgment.

Subcutaneously anchored securement is a very promising strategy for avoiding dislodgment. Further studies are warranted, in particular for the purpose of defining (a) the best management of the anchoring device so to avoid local problems, (b) the patient populations in which it may be considered highly cost-effective and even mandatory, (c) the possible benefit in terms of reduction of other catheter-related complications such as venous thrombosis and/or infection, and-last but not least-(d) their impact on the workload and stress level of nurses taking care of the devices.

Enhanced vascular assessment by ultrasound using microbubble contrast after percutaneous decannulation of peripheral veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

J Vasc Access

Termination of peripheral veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support by managing the arteriotomy wound using a percutaneous closure ...

Outcomes and radiographic findings of symptomatic isolated mesenteric artery dissection with conservative management.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the computed tomography follow-up outcomes and radiographic findings of symptomatic isolated mesenteric artery dissection (IMAD) after conservative management.

In this retrospective study, 130 consecutive patients with symptomatic IMAD from three institutions were enrolled from January 2011 to December 2019. The general epidemiological data, clinical manifestations, first-episode symptoms, imaging findings, and treatment strategy selection were analyzed from the medical records.

Among 130 patients diagnosed with symptomatic IMAD, positive remodeling of the SMA was achieved in 75.38% (98/130), and negative remodeling of the SMA was achieved in 24.62% (32/130). In the positive remodeling group, complete remodeling was achieved 39.23% (51/130) (type I 6 patients, type IIa 10 patients, type IIb 35 patients), in which type IIb was the most (p = 0.004). Moreover, of the 32 patients in whom negative remodeling of the SMA was achieved, significant differences were observed between the type IIa with respect to dissecting aneurysm formation (p = 0.04).Of the seven factors analyzed with a logistic regression model identified three factors significantly associated with negative remodeling: length of dissection (Waldχ2 13.331; OR 6.945; 95% CI 2.762-10.498; p = 0.014), true lumen residual diameter (TLRD) (Waldχ2 9.626; OR 7.85; 95% CI 1.892-19.063; p = 0.022), and branch involvement (Waldχ2 11.812; OR 7.247; 95% CI 1.245-14.830; p = 0.011).

The prognosis of most symptomatic IMAD has a tendency to positive remodeling after conservative management, in which the initial type IIb classification is common. In contrast, risk factors for negative remodeling were type IIa, length of dissection, TLRD, and branch involvement. Patients with these morphological characteristics may not benefit from conservative management.

Management of abdominal aortic aneurysm in nonagenarians: A single-centre experience.


In the last decades, life expectancy has increased worldwide considerably. Traditionally, very elderly patients have been considered too frail to undergo major vascular interventions. Considering that abdominal aortic aneurysm is an age-related disease, there is an increasing need of a correct management of the disease even in nonagenarians, but data are still scarce. The purpose of this single-centre study is to report early and mid-term outcomes of all-comer abdominal aortic aneurysm patients in their 10th decades of age.

A retrospective review of our prospectively maintained database identified a total of 33 patients aged ≥ 90 presenting with abdominal aortic aneurysm between 2014 and 2019. Elective and emergency repairs were both considered. Early technical success and mortality rate at 30 days were considered as primary outcomes. Mid-term clinical success was reported, and overall survival, freedom from aneurysm-related death, re-interventions and endoleaks were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method, stratified for elective of emergency repair and type of treatment.

The mean age was 91.7 (range 90-96), and 63.6% were male. Mean abdominal aortic aneurysm diameter was 67.4 ± 16.8 mm. Sixteen patients were admitted for rupture abdominal aortic aneurysm: three untreated, five underwent open and seven underwent endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), with an early mortality rate of 100, 100 and 42.8%, respectively. Eighteen (60%) patients were asymptomatic, and all underwent elective EVAR, with an early mortality rate of 0%. At one-month follow-up, clinical success was 84% in EVAR group. At a median follow-up of 22.4 ± 14.5 months, no abdominal aortic aneurysm-related death was registered. Freedom from all cause of mortality was 77.3, 59.4 and 40.7% at one, two and three years. Freedom from endoleaks was 95.4% at one month and 61.7% at one and three years. Freedom from reintervention was 85.8% at three years.

Elective EVAR in nonagenarians is associated with acceptable early and mid-term outcomes. Age by itself should not be considered an exclusion criterion for treatment.