The latest medical research on Vascular Surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about vascular surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Hypoalbuminemia Predicts Increased Readmission and Emergency Department Visits After Lower Extremity Bypass.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

Preoperative hypoalbuminemia is associated with poor outcomes across many surgical fields. However, the effects on outcomes after lower extremity bypass (LEB), particularly over the 90-day global surgical period, are unclear. Our goal was to analyze the effect of hypoalbuminemia within 90 days after LE bypass.

We performed a single-center retrospective review of all infrainguinal LEBs from 2007 to 2017. Patients were categorized into 3 preoperative albumin groups: severe hypoalbuminemia (SH; albumin ≤2.8g/dL), mild-moderate hypoalbuminemia (MH; albumin >2.8-3.5g/dL), and normal albumin (albumin >3.5g/dL). Patient and procedural details were recorded. Outcomes analyzed included wound infection, myocardial infarction (MI), pulmonary complications, early graft occlusion (≤30 days), mortality, and emergency department (ED) presentation and readmissions within 30 and 90 days. Multivariable analysis was performed.

We identified 313 patients undergoing LEB-45 (14.4%) with SH, 133 (42.5%) with MH, and 135 (43.1%) with normal albumin. Overall, the mean age was 65.7 years, and 63.3% were male. The SH group more frequently had tissue loss, diabetes, hypertension, end-stage renal disease, preoperative hematocrit <30%, and patients admitted preoperatively (all P < .05). There were no significant differences in wound complications, MI, pulmonary complications, early graft occlusion, 30-day or 90-day mortality, and 30-day ED presentation. Severe hypoalbuminemia compared to MH and normal albumin, respectively, had significantly higher rates of 30-day readmission (40% vs 30.8% vs 17.8%, P = .005), 90-day ED presentation (55.6% vs 33.8% vs 29.6%, P = .006), and 90-day readmission (66.7% vs 48.9% vs 35.6%, P = .001). Multivariable analysis showed that SH was independently associated with 90-day ED presentation (odds ratio [OR]: 2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-6.36, P = .014) and 90-day readmission (OR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.21-5.71, P = .015).

Our study suggests that patients with SH undergoing LEB had similar perioperative complication rates compared to normal albumin and MH groups, and SH was independently associated with 90-day ED presentation and readmission. Further studies are needed to assess other factors associated with ED visits and readmission.

Iliac-Ileal Conduit Fistula.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

One of the possible complications of chronic ureteral stenting is an artery-urinary tract fistula, although it is very rare. If it occurs, it is an...

Predictors of Wound Healing Following Revascularization for Chronic Limb-Threatening Ischemia.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

After surgical or endovascular revascularization, some ischemic lesions will not heal, while some others will heal at a variable period of time from the intervention, indicating a multifactorial interaction between local and systematic "wound healing-promoting" factors. Our objective was to identify predictors of wound healing following revascularization for chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI).

A literature review was performed to identify published research concerning clinical, biochemical, and noninvasive methods as predictors of wound healing time and wound-free period after surgical and endovascular revascularization for CLTI.

Our review indicated that potential predictors included local wound factors, wound depth, patient's comorbidities, medications, smoking and alcohol abuse, poor vessel runoff, and direct versus indirect revascularization. Among the clinical biomarkers, platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor β, basic fibroblast growth factor, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL) 1, and IL-6 have been proposed as potential predictors. Furthermore, the potential of noninvasive microcirculation assessment to predict proper wound healing has been the topic of extensive investigation. Among the novel methods, transcutaneous measurement of oxygen partial pressure, skin perfusion pressure, oxygen-to-see method, indocyanine green fluorescence imaging, and multispectral optoacoustic tomography have shown promising results.

The risk factor profile of an ischemic lesion in the lower extremities with a delayed/failed healing response, following a successful revascularization, is not fully clarified. Although many predictors have been assessed so far, further research needs to be done to identify the optimal clinical and biochemical indices and the noninvasive technique assessing the microcirculation that is associated with complete wound healing.

Perceptions of Surgery Residents About Parental Leave During Training.

JAMA Surgery

To our knowledge, there has been little research conducted on the attitudes of residents toward their pregnant peers and parental leave.

To examine the perceptions of current surgery residents regarding parental leave.

A 36-item survey was distributed to current US general surgery residents and residents in surgical subspecialties through the Association of Program Directors in Surgery listserv and social media platforms. Questions were associated with general information/demographics, parental leave, having children, and respondents' knowledge regarding the current parental leave policy as set by the American Board of Surgery. The study was conducted from August to September 2018 and the data were analyzed in October 2018.

Main outcomes included the attitudes of residents toward pregnancy and parental leave, parental leave policy, and the association of parental leave with residency programs.

A total of 2188 completed responses were obtained; of these, 1049 (50.2%) were women, 1572 (75.8%) were white, 164 (7.9%) were Hispanic/Latinx, 75 (3.6%) were African American, 2 (0.1%) were American Indian or Alaskan Native, 263 (12.7%) were Asian, and 5 (0.2%) were Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander. From the number of residents who had/were expecting children (581 [28.6%]), 474 (81.6%) had or were going to have a child during the clinical years of residency. Many residents (247 [42.5%]) took fewer than 2 weeks of parental leave. Many residents did not feel supported in taking parental leave (177 [30.4%] did not feel supported by other residents and 190 [32.71%] did not feel supported by the faculty). Only 83 respondents (3.8%%) correctly identified the current American Board of Surgery parental leave policy. Residents who took parental leave identified a lack of a universal leave policy, strain on the residency program, a loss of education/training time, a lack of flexibility of programs, and a perceived or actual lack of support from faculty/peers as the top 5 biggest obstacles to taking leave during the clinical years of residency.

Most of the modifiable factors that inhibit residents from having children during residency are associated with policies (eg, a lack of universal leave policy and lack of flexibility) and personnel (eg, a strain on the residency program and lack of support from peers/faculty). These data suggest that policies at the level of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education or Resident Review Committee (RRC), as well as education and the normalization of pregnancy during training, may be effective interventions.

Association of Residents' Neural Signatures With Stress Resilience During Surgery.

JAMA Surgery

Intraoperative stressors may compound cognitive load, prompting performance decline and threatening patient safety. However, not all surgeons cope equally well with stress, and the disparity between performance stability and decline under high cognitive demand may be characterized by differences in activation within brain areas associated with attention and concentration such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC).

To compare PFC activation between surgeons demonstrating stable performance under temporal stress with those exhibiting stress-related performance decline.

Cohort study conducted from July 2015 to September 2016 at the Imperial College Healthcare National Health Service Trust, England. One hundred two surgical residents (postgraduate year 1 and greater) were invited to participate, of which 33 agreed to partake.

Participants performed a laparoscopic suturing task under 2 conditions: self-paced (SP; without time-per-knot restrictions), and time pressure (TP; 2-minute per knot time restriction).

A composite deterioration score was computed based on between-condition differences in task performance metrics (task progression score [arbitrary units], error score [millimeters], leak volume [milliliters], and knot tensile strength [newtons]). Based on the composite score, quartiles were computed reflecting performance stability (quartile 1 [Q1]) and decline (quartile 4 [Q4]). Changes in PFC oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (HbO2) measured at 24 different locations using functional near-infrared spectroscopy were compared between Q1 and Q4. Secondary outcomes included subjective workload (Surgical Task Load Index) and heart rate.

Of the 33 participants, the median age was 33 years, the range was 29 to 56 years, and 27 were men (82%). The Q1 residents demonstrated task-induced increases in HbO2 across the bilateral ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) and right dorsolateral PFC in the SP condition and in the VLPFC in the TP condition. In contrast, Q4 residents demonstrated decreases in HbO2 in both conditions. The magnitude of PFC activation (change in HbO2) was significantly greater in Q1 than Q4 across the bilateral VLPFC during both SP (mean [SD] left VLPFC: Q1, 0.44 [1.30] μM; Q4, -0.21 [2.05] μM; P < .001; right VLPFC: Q1, 0.46 [1.12] μM; Q4, -0.15 [2.14] μM; P < .001) and TP (mean [SD] left VLPFC: Q1, 0.44 [1.36] μM; Q4, -0.03 [1.83] μM; P = .001; right VLPFC: Q1, 0.49 [1.70] μM; Q4, -0.32 [2.00] μM; P < .001) conditions. There were no significant between-group differences in Surgical Task Load Index or heart rate in either condition.

Performance stability within TP is associated with sustained prefrontal activation indicative of preserved attention and concentration, whereas performance decline is associated with prefrontal deactivation that may represent task disengagement.

Comparison of Fluid Dynamics Variations Between Chimney and Fenestrated Endografts for Pararenal Aneurysms Repair: A Patient Specific Computational Study as Motivation for Clinical Decision-Making.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

Limited data exist concerning the fluid dynamic changes induced by endovascular aortic repair with fenestrated and chimney graft modalities in pararenal aneurysms. We aimed to investigate and compare the wall shear stress (WSS) and flow dynamics for the branch vessels before and after endovascular aortic repair with fenestrated and chimney techniques.

Modeling was done for patient specific pararenal aortic aneurysms employing fenestrated and chimney grafts (Materialise Mimics 10.0) before and after the endovascular procedure, using computed tomography scans of patients. Surface and spatial grids were created using the ANSYS CFD meshing software 2019 R2. Assessment of blood flow, streamlines, and WSS before and after aneurysm repair was performed.

The endovascular repair with chimney grafts leaded to a 43% to 53% reduction in perfusion in renal arteries. In fenestrated reconstruction, we observed a 15% reduced perfusion in both renal arteries. In both cases, we observed a decrease in the recirculation phenomena of the aorta after endovascular repair. Concerning the grafts of the renal arteries, we observed in both the transverse and longitudinal axes low WSS regions with simultaneous recirculation of the flow 1 cm distal to the ostium sites in both aortic graft models. High WSS regions appeared in the sites of ostium.

We observed reduced renal perfusion in chimney grafts compared to fenestrated grafts, probably caused by the long and kinked characteristics of these devices.

Imaging Obtained Up To 12 Months Preoperatively Is Adequate for Planning Fenestrated/Branched Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

Patients referred for fenestrated/branched endovascular aortic repair (F/BEVAR) often present with a previous computed tomography angiogram (CTA), but it is unknown how recent the CTA must be to ensure accurate F/BEVAR planning. We sought to determine whether anatomic planning parameters change significantly between a CTA used for F/BEVAR planning and a CTA obtained 6 to 12 months prior.

Two blinded observers reviewed preoperative CTAs from 21 patients who underwent F/BEVAR. Each patient had a "recent" scan obtained 0 to 6 months before F/BEVAR planning and a "prior" scan obtained 6 to 12 months before the "recent" CTA. Standard measurements included (1) target vessel separation distances, (2) target vessel origin clock position, and (3) proximal F/BEVAR device diameter. Clinically significant differences for target vessel separation distance, target vessel origin clock position, and proximal F/BEVAR device diameter were predefined as >5 mm, >30 minutes, and >4 mm, respectively. Differences between "recent"/"prior" CTA scans were examined by paired t test.

Mean time interval between paired "recent"/"prior" CTAs was 8.0 months (standard deviation: ±1.7). Mean difference in paired "recent"/"prior" target vessel distance (relative to celiac artery [CA]) was 2.6 mm for the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), 2.5 mm for the right renal artery (RRA), and 3.3 mm for the left renal artery (LRA). Of the 21 paired "recent"/"prior" CTAs, clinically significant differences were observed in 2, 4, and 2 patients for SMA, RRA, and LRA target vessel distance, respectively. Target vessel clock position (SMA reference at 12:00) varied by 12 minutes for the CA, 13 minutes for the RRA, and 15 minutes for the LRA. One paired "recent"/"prior" CTA was found to have a clinically significant difference for the LRA. No clinically significant differences were observed for proximal device diameter.

In patients who underwent successful F/BEVAR, measurement comparisons between CTAs obtained up to 1 year prior were minor and unlikely to yield clinically significant changes to F/BEVAR design.

A Rare Case of 7 Simultaneous Arterial Dissections and Review of The Literature.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

Spontaneous multiple artery dissection is a relatively rare phenomenon. Early clinical signs are often nonspecific, making it difficult to diagnose.

This is a case of a 51-year-old female who presented with spontaneous dissection of 4 visceral arteries, both iliac arteries, and of the right internal carotid artery. The patient underwent urgent successful endovascular repair. Later complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome and pneumonia after massive blood transfusion. She recovered gradually and was discharged after 21 days. Due to this rare presentation, genetic investigation was performed in search of a connective tissue disorder. Results revealed a new COL3A1 subtype mutation. The pathogenicity of this variant remains unclear.

We recommend a high index of suspicion for visceral artery dissection in the differential diagnosis for abdominal pain with concurrent uncontrolled hypertension. Early diagnosis and intervention are crucial to reducing the mortality rate.

Comparison of Ultrasound-Accelerated Versus Multi-Hole Infusion Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis for the Treatment of Acute Limb Ischemia.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

Thrombolytic therapy is widely used in the treatment of arterial occlusions causing acute limb ischemia (ALI); however, knowledge regarding the efficacy of the different catheter systems available is scarce. The objective of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of 2 catheter-directed infusion systems for intra-arterial thrombolysis in the setting of ALI.

A retrospective analysis was conducted to study all catheter-directed thrombolysis procedures performed over 32 months in patients diagnosed with ALI. Patients with thrombosis in both native arteries and bypass grafts were included. Patients with contraindications to thrombolysis, or those receiving thrombolysis for deep venous thrombosis, were excluded. The duration of thrombolysis, amount of thrombolytic agent, and technical success rate were recorded. Technical success was defined as complete or near-complete resolution of thrombus burden, allowing for further intervention. Data were stratified to include location of thrombus, procedural complications, mortality, and rates of limb loss.

Ninety-one patients met inclusion criteria. Among them, Uni-Fuse and EKOS catheters were used in 69 and 22 patients, respectively. The mean age of the population was 71 (standard deviation [SD]: ±1.5) for patients treated with the EKOS catheter and 70 years (SD: ±2.6) for patients receiving thrombolysis with Uni-Fuse. There was no significant difference in the mean infusion duration (1.65 vs 1.9 days), volume of tissue plasminogen activator (44.6 vs 48.2 mg), or technical success rate (72% vs 86%) between the Uni-Fuse and EKOS cohorts (P > .3). Furthermore, there was no difference in major limb loss or compartment syndrome between each group (P > .4). The overall complication rate was 14% in both groups, with a 30-day mortality rate of 4% when treated with either catheter system.

This study suggests that a standard multi-hole infusion catheter demonstrates similar clinical safety and efficacy as the ultrasound-accelerated EKOS system in the treatment of ALI.

Double D Technique: An Innovative Modified Bifurcated Stent Graft Deployment Strategy for an Isolated Common Iliac Artery Aneurysm With a Challenging Renal Artery Anatomy.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for an isolated common iliac artery aneurysm (iCIAA) sometimes requires a bifurcated stent graft (SG). In EVAR, it is essential to preserve the renal artery (RA). However, this is challenging in cases of anatomical variation. The double D technique (DDT) can be used in anatomically inadequate cases with a commercially approved bifurcated SG. Here, we report the repair of iCIAA in the presence of a challenging RA anatomy, through EVAR using the DDT.

An 84-year-old woman was diagnosed with a maximal 35-mm diameter left iCIAA and a nonaneurysmal aorta by computed tomography (CT), which also showed that the right RA arose 50-mm above the aortic bifurcation. The DDT was chosen because commercially approved bifurcated SGs typically require a distance of >70 mm from the proximal position to the aortic bifurcation. Postoperative CT showed excellent results with no endoleaks or SG kinking and occlusion, as well as preservation of robust blood flow to the right RA.

Endovascular aneurysm repair using the DDT can be an alternative option for treatment of iCIAA with a challenging RA anatomy.

Be Aware of Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery Origin Before Aortic Coarctation Stenting: A Case Report Study.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

The subclavian steal syndrome (SSS), also called subclavian steal steno-occlusive disease, is defined as reversal of the vertebral artery flow seco...