The latest medical research on Sports Medicine

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about sports medicine gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Early manipulation under anaesthesia for stiffness following total knee arthroplasty is associated with a greater gain in knee flexion.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc

This study aimed to identify the risk factors for manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA) following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and whether performing an 'early' MUA within 3 months leads to a greater improvement in range of motion.


A total of 7386 primary TKAs were analysed in which 131 underwent an MUA (1.8%). Patients aged < 65 years were two times more likely to undergo MUA compared to patients aged ≥ 65 years (2.5 versus 1.3%, p < 0.001; adjusted HR = 2.1, p < 0.001). There was no difference in the final flexion angle post-MUA between early and late MUA (104.7° versus 104.1°, p = 0.819). However, patients who underwent early MUA had poorer pre-MUA flexion (72.3° versus 79.6°, p = 0.012), and subsequently had a greater overall gain in flexion compared to those who underwent late MUA (mean gain 33.1° versus 24.3°, p < 0.001).

Younger age was the only patient risk factor for MUA. Patients who underwent early MUA had similar post-MUA flexion, but had poorer pre-MUA flexion compared to those who underwent late MUA. Subsequently, a greater overall gain in flexion was achieved in those who underwent early MUA.

Effect of Resistance Exercise Orders on Health Parameters in Trained Older Women: A Randomized Crossover Trial.

Medicine and Science in Sports

To compare the effects of four resistance exercise orders on muscular strength, body composition, functional fitness, cardiovascular risk factors, and mental health parameters in trained older women.

The intervention lasted 63 weeks. Sixty-one physically independent women (> 60 years) after completing a 12-week resistance training (RT) pre-conditioning phase were randomized into four different exercise orders groups to perform 12 weeks of RT: multi- to single-joint and upper- to lower-body (MJ-SJ-U), single- to multi-joint and upper- to lower-body (SJ-MJ-U), multi- to single-joint and lower- to upper-body (MJ-SJ-L), and single- to multi-joint and lower- to upper-body (SJ-MJ-L). This was followed by a 12-week detraining period and another 12-week RT in which exercise orders were crossed-over between MJ-SJ and SJ-MJ conditions. Body composition (DXA), muscular strength (1RM tests), functional fitness (gait speed, walking agility, 30-s chair stand, and 6-min walk tests), cardiovascular risk factors (glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, C-reactive protein, AOPP, TRAP, and NOx), depressive (GDS-scale), and anxiety symptoms (BAI), cognitive performance (MoCA, Trail Making, verbal fluency, and Stroop test) were analyzed.

Following the final training period, all groups presented significant improvements (P < 0.05) in almost all analyzed variables (muscular strength, body composition, functional tests, blood biomarkers, and mental health parameters), without significant difference among exercise orders.

Our results suggest that RT exercise orders in which MJ, SJ, upper, or lower-body exercises are performed first have similar effects on health parameters in trained older women.

Cardiovascular Adjustments Following Acute Heat Exposure.

Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews

In this review, we highlight recent studies from our group and others that have characterized the cardiovascular adjustments that occur following a...

Genetic Pathways Underlying Individual Differences in Regular Physical Activity.

Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews

Twin and family studies show a strong contribution of genetic factors to physical activity (PA) assessed either by self-report or accelerometers. P...

Less risk of conversion to total knee arthroplasty without significant clinical and survivorship difference for opening-wedge high tibial osteotomies in varus knee deformities at 10-year minimum follow-up compared to closing-wedge high tibial osteotomies.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes and survivorship at minimum 10-year follow-up of patients undergoing primary valgisation high tibial osteotomy (HTO) for medial osteoarthritis (OA), treated by Opening-Wedge HTO (OW-HTO) or Closing-Wedge HTO (CW-HTO).

Retrospective case series, IV.

At the time of HTO, mean age was 55 years ± 7.9 (27-73.9) with 72.7% of patients being male. The mean follow-up was 13.3 years ± 2.7 (10-19). Sixty-four (34.9%) patients underwent TKA at a mean delay of 9.3 years ± 3 (3-16). The conversion to TKA rate was significantly higher in the CW-HTO group versus the OW-HTO group: 42.5% (37/87) versus 28.1% (27/96) (p = 0.04). The survival at 15-year follow-up was 59.2% in the OW-HTO group versus 54.6% in the CW-HTO group (n.s.). At 13-year follow-up, KSS Function score was significantly better in the OW-HTO (90.9 versus 82.4; p = 0.007). No significant difference was observed between the two groups regarding the KOOS score, KSS Knee Score and complication rate.

At mean follow-up of 13 years, no significant clinical and survivorship difference was observed between the two groups. The conversion to TKA was significantly lower following OW-HTO. Minor correction was associated with risk of requiring subsequent TKA.

Micro-fragmented adipose tissue (mFAT) associated with arthroscopic debridement provides functional improvement in knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc

Current conservative treatments for knee OA provide limited benefits, with symptoms relief for a short amount of time. Regenerative medicine approaches such as the use of microfragmented adipose tissue (mFAT) showed promising results in terms of durable effects and the possibility to enhance tissue healing and counteract the progression of the pathology. Nevertheless, up to today, the large part of clinical data about mFAT use refers to uncontrolled studies, especially in the surgical setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mFAT applied in association with arthroscopic debridement (AD) for the treatment of knee OA, in terms of symptoms relief and tissue healing.

This study is a prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial. 78 patients affected by knee OA grade 3-4 according to KL classification were randomly assigned to AD or AD + mFAT treatment groups. Clinical, radiological and serological assessments were performed at 6 months after treatment. Additional clinical evaluation was performed at the end of the study with an average follow-up of 26.1 ± 9.5 months. VAS, KOOS, WOMAC and SF-12 were also collected at both timepoints, KSS only at 6 months.

Treatment with AD + mFAT improved functional scores at both 6 months (KOOS-PS: + 11.7 ± 20.2 vs + 24.4 ± 22.5, in AD and AD + mFAT, respectively, p = 0.024; KSS: + 14.9 ± 15.9 vs + 24.8 ± 23.5, in AD and AD + mFAT, respectively, p = 0.046) and 24-month follow-ups (KOOS-PS Functional subscale: - 2.0 ± 3.5 vs - 4.7 ± 4.2, in AD and AD + mFAT, respectively, p = 0.012). Lower T2-mapping scores were obtained in AD + mFAT-treated group in medial and lateral condyle compartments (p < 0.001). Slight increase was observed in the levels of a serum biomarker of cartilage deposition (PIIINP) in both groups at 6-month follow-up (p = 0.037).

mFAT improves functional outcome and MRI appearance when used in association with AD, therefore supporting its use in the treatment of knee OA in an arthroscopic setting.

Primary surgery versus primary rehabilitation for treating anterior cruciate ligament injuries: a living systematic review and meta-analysis.

Brit J Sports Med

Compare the effectiveness of primarily surgical versus primarily rehabilitative management for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture.

Randomised controlled trials that compared primary reconstructive surgery and primary rehabilitative treatment with or without optional reconstructive surgery.

Of 9514 records, 9 reports of three studies (320 participants in total) were included. No clinically important differences were observed at any follow-up for self-reported knee function (low to very low certainty of evidence). For radiological knee osteoarthritis, we found no effect at very low certainty of evidence in the long term (OR (95% CrI): 1.45 (0.30 to 5.17), two studies). Meniscal damage showed no effect at low certainty of evidence (OR: 0.85 (95% CI 0.45 to 1.62); one study) in the long term. No differences were observed between treatments for any other secondary outcome. Three ongoing randomised controlled trials were identified.

There is low to very low certainty of evidence that primary rehabilitation with optional surgical reconstruction results in similar outcome measures as early surgical reconstruction for ACL rupture. The findings challenge a historical paradigm that anatomic instability should be addressed with primary surgical stabilisation to provide optimal outcomes.


Patient Acceptable Symptom State, Minimal Clinically Important Difference, and Substantial Clinical Benefit After Arthroscopic Superior Capsular Reconstruction.

Am J Sports Med

Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS), minimal clinically important difference (MCID), and substantial clinical benefit (SCB) have rarely been assessed after arthroscopic superior capsular reconstruction (ASCR) with fascia lata autograft.

(1) To investigate PASS, MCID, and SCB values for pain visual analog scale (pVAS), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Constant score, and Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) after ASCR with fascia lata autograft, (2) to investigate factors for achieving PASS, MCID, and SCB.

Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2.

We retrospectively collected data from patients who underwent ASCR between June 2013 and October 2020. A total of 88 patients were included, and anchor questions for deriving PASS, MCID, and SCB values were applied at a minimum 1-year follow-up postoperatively. PASS, MCID, and SCB were derived using sensitivity- and specificity-based approaches. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine factors for achieving PASS, MCID, and SCB.

Based on receiver operating characteristic curves, all 4 scores had acceptable area under the curve values (>0.7) for PASS, MCID, and SCB values. The PASS, MCID, and SCB values were 1.5, 2.5, and 4.5 for pVAS; 81.0, 19.0, and 27.5 for the ASES score; 60.5, -0.5, and 5.5 for the Constant score; and 75.0, 27.5, and 32.5 for SANE, respectively. Poor preoperative scores were related to significantly higher odds ratios (ORs) for achieving MCID and SCB. Wide acromiohumeral distance and dominant side were related to higher ORs for achieving PASS for the ASES score, and subscapularis tear was related to lower ORs for achieving PASS for pVAS and SCB for the Constant score.

Reliable PASS, MCID, and SCB values were achieved for at least 1 year after ASCR surgery. Poor preoperative score, wide acromiohumeral distance, and dominant side all demonstrated higher ORs for at least one value, but a subscapularis tear demonstrated lower ORs for achieving PASS for pVAS and SCB for the Constant score.

Development of a machine learning model to predict lateral hinge fractures by analyzing patient factors before open wedge high tibial osteotomy.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc

Several methods have been developed to prevent lateral hinge fractures (LHFs), using only classic statistical models. Machine learning is under the spotlight because of its ability to analyze various weights and model nonlinear relationships. The purpose of this study was to create a machine learning model that predicts LHF with high predictive performance.

The ensemble model with the highest AUC was a combination of a light gradient boosting machine (LGBM) and multilayer perceptron (MLP) (AUC = 0.992). The ensemble model with the highest F1-score was the model that combined logistic regression (LR) and MLP (F1-score = 0.765). Distance X was the most predictive feature in the results of both model interpretation analyses.

Two types of ensemble models, LGBM with MLP and LR with MLP, were developed as machine learning models to predict LHF with high predictive performance. Using these models, surgeons can identify important features to prevent LHF and establish strategies by adjusting modifiable factors.

Larger bone marrow lesion volume before medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy correlates with better improvement of clinical scores in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc

This study evaluated the clinical outcomes of medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO) and bone marrow lesion (BML) scores and volumes. The hypotheses were that quantitative BML volume is more associated with clinical outcomes of MOWHTO than qualitative BML evaluations, and pre-operative BML volume is associated with the improvement of clinical outcomes.

Retrospective case series, Level IV.

The final analysis included 40 MOWHTO cases. Two qualitative BML scores correlated only with pre-operative KOOS sports. Femoral and tibial BML volumes were correlated with post-operative KOOS QOL (ρ = 0.40, p = 0.01) and sports (ρ = 0.36, p = 0.02), respectively. Tibial BML volume was significantly correlated with all five delta KOOS scales (ρ = 0.39-0.51, p = 0.01-0.001), however, femoral BML volume was only correlated with delta KOOS QOL (ρ = 0.41, p = 0.01). In multivariate analyses, tibial BML volume was a significant positive predictor for every post-operative KOOS scale, while post-operative % mechanical axis was also a positive significant variable, except post-operative KOOS pain.

Tibial BML volume was positively correlated with one post-operative KOOS scale and all delta KOOS scales. A larger pre-operative tibial BML and appropriate alignment correction were associated with a better post-operative KOOS scales. Pre-operative large BML had no negative influence on post-operative clinical outcomes; hence, surgeons need not hesitate to perform MOWHTO in patients with large BMLs in the medial condyles.

The German version of the Nottingham Clavicle Score is a reliable and valid patient-reported outcome measure to evaluate patients with clavicle and acromioclavicular pathologies.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc

The Nottingham Clavicle Score (NCS) is a patient-reported outcome measure developed to evaluate treatment results of clavicle, acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joint pathologies. Valid, reliable and user-friendly translations of outcome measure instruments are needed to allow comparisons of international results. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to translate and adapt the NCS into German and evaluate the psychometric properties of the German version.

Level III.

No major differences occurred between the NCS translations into German and back into English, and no content- or linguistic-related difficulties were reported. The Cronbach's alpha for the NCS-G was 0.885, showing optimal internal consistency. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.907 (95% CI 0.844-0.945), with a standard error of measurement of 5.59 points and a minimal detectable change of 15.50 points. The NCS-G showed moderate to strong correlation with all other investigated scales (Spearman correlation coefficient: qDASH: ρ =  - 0.751; OSS: ρ = 0.728; Imatani Score: ρ = 0.646; CMS: ρ = 0.621; VAS: ρ =  - 0.709). Good sensitivity to change was confirmed by an effect size of 1.17 (95% CI 0.89-1.47) and a standardized response mean of 1.23 (95% CI 0.98-1.45).

This study demonstrated that NCS-G is reliable, valid, reproducible and well accepted by patients, showing analogous psychometric properties to the original English version.

Hip Impingement Location in Maximal Hip Flexion in Patients With Femoroacetabular Impingement With and Without Femoral Retroversion.

Am J Sports Med

Symptomatic patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) have limitations in daily activities and sports and report the exacerbation of hip pain in deep flexion. Yet, the exact impingement location in deep flexion and the effect of femoral version (FV) are unclear.

To investigate the acetabular and femoral locations of intra- or extra-articular hip impingement in flexion in patients with FAI with and without femoral retroversion.

Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.

An institutional review board-approved retrospective study involving 84 hips (68 participants) was performed. Of these, symptomatic patients (37 hips) with anterior FAI and femoral retroversion (FV <5°) were compared with symptomatic patients (21 hips) with anterior FAI (normal FV) and with a control group (26 asymptomatic hips without FAI and normal FV). All patients were symptomatic, had anterior hip pain, and had positive anterior impingement test findings. Most of the patients had hip/groin pain in maximal flexion or deep flexion or during sports. All 84 hips underwent pelvic computed tomography (CT) to measure FV as well as validated dynamic impingement simulation with patient-specific CT-based 3-dimensional models using the equidistant method.

In maximal hip flexion, femoral impingement was located anterior-inferior at 4 o'clock (57%) and 5 o'clock (32%) in patients with femoral retroversion and mostly at 5 o'clock in patients without femoral retroversion (69%) and in asymptomatic controls (76%). Acetabular intra-articular impingement was located anterior-superior (2 o'clock) in all 3 groups. In 125° of flexion, patients with femoral retroversion had a significantly (P < .001) higher prevalence of anterior extra-articular subspine impingement (54%) and anterior intra-articular impingement (89%) compared with the control group (29% and 62%, respectively).

Knowing the exact location of hip impingement in deep flexion has implications for surgical treatment, sports, and physical therapy and confirms previous recommendations: Deep flexion (eg, during squats/lunges) should be avoided in patients with FAI and even more in patients with femoral retroversion. Patients with femoral retroversion may benefit and have less pain when avoiding deep flexion. For these patients, the femoral location of the impingement conflict in flexion was different (anterior-inferior) and distal to the cam deformity compared with the location during the anterior impingement test (anterior-superior). This could be important for preoperative planning and bone resection (cam resection or acetabular rim trimming) during hip arthroscopy or open hip preservation surgery to ensure that the region of impingement is appropriately identified before treatment.