The latest medical research on Endovascular surgery

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about endovascular surgery gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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A Multicenter Retrospective Evaluation of Direct Oral Anticoagulants for the Treatment of Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia.

Cardiovascular Drugs

Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) represent an off-label but potential alternative to traditional therapies for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT).

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DOACs in patients with a diagnosis of laboratory-confirmed HIT.

A multicenter retrospective cohort study of adult patients with HIT treated with apixaban, rivaroxaban, or dabigatran between 1 January 2013 and 1 January 2020 was performed. Patients with an intermediate or high pre-test probability for HIT and a positive antiplatelet factor 4/heparin complex assay, latex immunoturbidimetric assay, or serotonin release assay were included for analysis. The primary outcome was the composite of newly diagnosed venous or arterial thromboembolism, gangrene, or severe limb ischemia requiring amputation at 3 months following DOAC initiation. This study was approved by local institutional review boards, and the requirement for informed consent was waived.

A total of 77 patients from four health systems were included. The median 4Ts score was 5 (interquartile range 4.5-6), and 38 patients (49.4%) had a diagnosis of HIT with thrombosis. The most frequently used DOAC was apixaban (n = 51), followed by rivaroxaban (n = 24) and dabigatran (n = 2). In total, 63 (81.8%) patients received parenteral non-heparin anticoagulation prior to DOAC initiation. Nine patients (11.7%) experienced the primary outcome of HIT-related thrombotic events. Of the 14 patients who exclusively received DOAC therapy, none experienced the primary outcome. Major bleeding occurred in five (6.5%) patients.

In this retrospective cohort study, DOACs were associated with rates of thrombotic and hemorrhagic events similar to those with other therapies currently used in the treatment of HIT.

Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Disease: The Past, Present, and Future.

Cardiovascular Drugs

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes ...

Comparison of Direct Oral Anticoagulants for Acute Hospital Mortality in Venous Thromboembolism.

Cardiovascular Drugs

The choice of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for venous thromboembolism (VTE) is at the physician's discretion; however, it is useful to know the differences in the clinical data of DOACs to help physicians choose.

We aimed to compare the mortality associated with the use of rivaroxaban, edoxaban, and apixaban in clinical practice.

We identified 38,245 patients with first hospitalization for VTE from the Diagnosis Procedure Combination database in the Japanese Registry of All Cardiac and Vascular Datasets (JROAD-DPC). We classified patients into three groups by DOAC (rivaroxaban and edoxaban group, rivaroxaban and apixaban group, and edoxaban and apixaban group) and compared the in-hospital mortality and bleeding risk by propensity score (PS) matching in each group.

After PS matching, patients with rivaroxaban use had significantly lower total in-hospital mortality (1.2% vs. 2.1%; odds ratio [OR] 0.55, p = 0.012) and in-hospital mortality within 21 days (0.4% vs. 1.0%; OR 0.41, p = 0.020) and 28 days (0.7% vs. 1.3%; OR 0.53, p = 0.042) than patients with apixaban use. In the subanalysis, significant differences were only observed in patients younger than 80 years of age, patients with pulmonary embolism, and patients without heart failure. There was no significant difference in in-hospital mortality in the other groups and in the rate of bleeding events among the three groups.

On PS-matched analysis, there was a difference in in-hospital mortality, especially in the rivaroxaban and apixaban group. Identifying the clinical characteristics of patients associated with each DOAC, as well as prognosis, will be useful in determining treatment strategies for VTE.

Comparison of Efficacy and Safety of Statin-Ezetimibe Combination Therapy with Statin Monotherapy in Patients with Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Studies.

Cardiovascular Drugs

Dyslipidemia in diabetes mellitus is characterized by hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Additionally, the potentially increased risk of morbidity and mortality following atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases should be considered in the treatment of dyslipidemia in patients with diabetes.

We performed a meta-analysis of the published data to compare the effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin)-ezetimibe combination therapy and statin monotherapy on lipid and glucose parameters in patients with diabetes. We also compared safety based on the adverse events reported for the two groups.

In total, 17 articles were included in this meta-analysis. In the efficacy assessment, the combination treatment afforded a significantly greater reduction in LDL-C than did statin monotherapy (standard difference in means 0.691; 95% confidence interval 0.534-0.847). A significantly greater improvement effect was observed in the levels of HDL-C, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and apolipoprotein B, but not apolipoprotein A1, with combination therapy than with statin monotherapy. Additionally, combination therapy reduced fasting blood glucose levels more significantly than did statin monotherapy. In terms of safety, there were no significant differences in treatment-related adverse events between the two treatments.

Statin-ezetimibe combination therapy enhances levels of LDL-C and other lipids without increasing the risk of adverse events compared with statin monotherapy. The present meta-analysis presents valid evidence for appropriate drug regimens to treat dyslipidemia in patients with diabetes.

PROSPERO Identifier Number CRD42021244578.

Current and Emerging Classes of Pharmacological Agents for the Management of Hypertension.

Cardiovascular Drugs

Cardiovascular disease accounts for more than 17 million deaths globally every year, of which complications of hypertension account for 9.4 million...

Real-World Effectiveness of Ivabradine in Chinese Patients with Chronic Heart Failure: Interim Analysis of the POSITIVE Study.

Cardiovascular Drugs

ISRCTN11703380; registered on 8 November 2016.

We designed a prospective, multicenter, observational study of Chinese adults with HF and left ventricular systolic dysfunction, resting HR ≥ 75 beats per minute (bpm), and an indication for ivabradine treatment. An interim analysis was performed using a cut-off date of 31 October 2019. The primary outcome was change in HR at 6 months after the initiation of ivabradine. Secondary endpoints included change in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class; quality of life (QoL), measured using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ); and adverse events (AEs).

Overall, 655 subjects were included in the interim analysis. Mean reduction in HR from baseline was 13.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.2-15.2) bpm at Month 1, and 14.5 (95% CI 11.8-17.2) bpm at Month 6 (p < 0.001 for both changes). NYHA functional class and KCCQ scores improved significantly over time (p < 0.001 for all comparisons with baseline), indicating amelioration of symptoms and better QoL, respectively. Forty-four subjects (6.7%) reported a total of 60 ivabradine-related AEs, most frequently phosphenes and bradycardia (both n = 6, 0.9%).

Treatment with ivabradine for 6 months effectively reduced HR and improved functional class and QoL in Chinese patients with chronic HF. Treatment was well tolerated.

Proposed Pathogenesis, Characteristics, and Management of COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine-Related Myopericarditis.

Cardiovascular Drugs

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the novel coronavirus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has affected human...

SGLT-2 Inhibitors on Top of Current Pharmacological Treatments for Heart Failure: A Comparative Review on Outcomes and Cost Effectiveness.

Cardiovascular Drugs

Heart failure (HF) represents a major global health and economic burden with still unacceptably high morbidity and mortality rates. In recent decad...

Improving the Management of Hypertension by Tackling Awareness, Adherence, and Clinical Inertia: A Symposium Report.

Cardiovascular Drugs

Hypertension remains the leading cause of global mortality, with elevated systolic blood pressure (BP) leading to 10.8 million deaths each year. De...

Direct Oral Anticoagulants Versus Vitamin K Antagonists in the Treatment of Left Ventricular Thrombi.

Cardiovascular Drugs

Left ventricular thrombi form due to the presence of Virchow's triad in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. This complication incr...

Non-persistence to Oral Anticoagulation Treatment in Patients with Non-valvular Atrial Fibrillation in the USA.

Cardiovascular Drugs

Studies have shown that patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) who discontinue oral anticoagulants (OACs) are at higher risk of complications such as stroke.

This analysis compared the risk of non-persistence with OACs among patients with NVAF.

Adult patients with NVAF who initiated apixaban, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or warfarin were identified using 01JAN2013-30JUN2019 data from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and four US commercial claims databases. Non-persistence was defined as discontinuation (no evidence of index OAC use for ≥ 60 days from the last days' supply) or switch to another OAC. Kaplan-Meier curves were generated to illustrate time to non-persistence along with cumulative incidences of non-persistence. Baseline and time-varying covariates were evaluated, and adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate non-persistence risk.

In total, 363,823 patients receiving apixaban, 57,121 receiving dabigatran, 282,831 receiving rivaroxaban, and 317,337 receiving warfarin were included. Of these, 47-72% discontinued/switched OAC therapy within an average 9-month follow-up. Apixaban was associated with a lower risk of non-persistence than were dabigatran (hazard ratio [HR] 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61-0.62), rivaroxaban (HR 0.76; 95% CI 0.75-0.76), and warfarin (HR 0.74; 95% CI 0.74-0.75). Dabigatran was associated with a higher risk of non-persistence than were warfarin (HR 1.21; 95% CI 1.19-1.22) and rivaroxaban (HR 1.23; 95% CI 1.22-1.25), and rivaroxaban was associated with a lower risk of non-persistence than was warfarin (HR 0.98; 95% CI 0.97-0.98). Clinical events (stroke/systemic embolism and major bleeding [MB]) during follow-up were predictors of non-persistence (stroke HR 1.57; 95% CI 1.53-1.61; MB HR 2.96; 95% CI 2.92-3.00).

In over one million patients with NVAF, our results suggest differences in anticoagulation treatment persistence across OAC agents, even after accounting for clinical events after OAC initiation. It is important for clinicians and patients to take these differences into consideration, especially as non-persistence to OAC therapy is associated with thromboembolic complications.

Dapagliflozin Versus Sacubitril-Valsartan to Improve Outcomes of Patients with Reduced Ejection Fraction and Diabetes Mellitus.

Cardiovascular Drugs

Comorbid heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with a very high risk of HF events. Sacubitril-valsartan, an angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI), and dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, improve HF outcomes in these patients, but their comparative value for money in this patient population has not yet been determined.

We aimed to compare the cost needed to treat (CNT) to avoid an HF event with each drug.

CNT was estimated by multiplying the annualized number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one HF event by the annual cost of each therapy. HF events were defined as the first event of hospitalization for HF or cardiovascular mortality. Drug efficacy data were extracted from published secondary analyses of patients with DM in the DAPA-HF and PARADIGM-HF trials. Drug costs were estimated as 75% of the 2021 US National Average Drug Acquisition Cost listing. Sensitivity analysis was performed on parameters that may have affected the CNT.

The annualized NNT was 24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 16-54) for dapagliflozin and 57 (95% CI 31-433) for the ARNI. At an annual cost of $US4523 and 5099, respectively, the CNT was $US108,563 (95% CI 72,375-244,267) for dapagliflozin and $US290,671 (95% CI 158,084-2,208,079) for the ARNI.

Dapagliflozin seems to offer greater value for money than the ARNI for patients with HFrEF and DM. Our results provide support for contemporary guidelines advocating the use of dapagliflozin in these patients.