The latest medical research on Infectious Disease

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about infectious disease gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Interrogating the impact of combination antiretroviral therapies on HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

HIV Medicine

Although the advent of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART) has greatly reduced the prevalence of HIV-Associated Dementia, the most severe form of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND), the incidence of the milder forms of HAND have risen. The explanations proposed include persistent central nervous system (CNS) viraemia and the neurotoxicity of chronic cART regimens. Nonetheless, controversies in HAND prevalence estimates, alongside a lack of consensus on the significance of CNS Penetration Effectiveness (CPE) have added to the complexity of elucidating the role of cART in HAND. The present review will evaluate the evidence underlying these explanations, as well as highlighting the need for improved trial designs and the incorporation of emerging biomarkers and neuroimaging tools.

A review of the current literature investigating cART neurotoxicity, controversies in HAND prevalence estimates, CNS Penetration Effectiveness, and neuroprotective adjuvant therapies.

Ultimately, the inadequacy of cART in achieving complete preservation of the CNS underscores the imminent need for neuroprotective adjuvant therapies, where the efficacy of combining multiple adjuvant classes presents a potential therapeutic frontier which must be interrogated.

Longitudinal analysis of client appointment adherence under Universal Test and Treat strategy: A stepped-wedge trial.

HIV Medicine

Universal Test and Treat (UTT) strategies are being adopted across sub-Saharan Africa based on clinical benefits to morbidity and mortality and to attain targets of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Universal Test and Treat is expected to change the client population at clinics, due to more asymptomatic HIV clients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). We assessed the impact of UTT on client appointment adherence at 14 government-managed health facilities in Eswatini's public sector health system.

We assessed the impact of UTT on client adherence to appointment schedules from 2014 to 2017 in a stepped-wedge trial. Repeated measures analysis was used to assess adherence to each scheduled appointment (primary definition: presenting for care within 7 days after the scheduled appointment), adjusting for time, age, sex, stage, marital status, ART status and facility.

Among 3354 clients (62.1% female; 57.4% < 35 years), a median (interquartile range) of 10 (6-15) appointments were scheduled during follow-up. In a multivariable-adjusted model, appointment adherence was significantly greater in clients who were female [odds ratio (OR) = 1.38, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25-1.52], older (e.g. 40 to < 50 years vs. < 20 years; OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.00-2.09), married (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.19-1.44), had lower WHO stage at study enrolment (1-2 vs. 3-4: OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.13-1.41), and were currently on ART (OR = 3.55, 95% CI: 2.62-4.82). However, UTT strategy was not significantly associated with client adherence to scheduled appointments (OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.72-1.45).

Despite transitioning to UTT, there was no change in visit adherence, a reassuring finding given the large volume of clients currently being initiated at earlier stages of HIV.

HPV 16 and 18 contribute to development of anal dysplasia in HIV infection irrespective of gender and sexual orientation.

HIV Medicine

The aim of the present study was too investigate prevalence and persistence of human papilloma virus (HPV) and cytological abnormalities (CAs) in the anal swabs of people living with HIV (PLWH): men who have sex with men (MSM), men who have sex with women (MSW) and women (W).

Between March 2010 and January 2019, an anal swab for cytological and HPV genotyping tests was offered to all PLWH attending our clinic. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of infection.

In all, 354 PLWH were screened: 174 MSM, 90 MSW and 61 W. Prevalence of at least one high-risk (HR) HPV was higher in MSM (91%) and W (85%) than in MSW (77%) (P < 0.05). Cytological abnormalities were found in 21.1% of the entire population. At multivariable regression analysis a lower risk for HPV infection was found for W than for MSM [odds ratio = 0.24 (95% confidence interval: 0.115-0.513)] and for MSW than for MSM [0.37 (0.180-0.773)] and there was a significantly higher risk of CAs in PLWH with HPV 16 and 18 [3.3 (1.04-10.49)]. A total of 175 PLWH (103 MSM, 33 MSW and 26 W) had at least one follow-up visit (T1) after a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 3.6 (2.1-5.7) years. The acquisition rate of HR-HPV was high, with 66.7% of PLWH negative for HR-HPV at T0 who became positive at T1 (P < 0.001). The prevalence of CAs was stable (20.6%). A significant association between CAs at T1 and persistence of HPV-16 and/or 18 was found (P < 0.05).

HPV 16 and 18 are associated with the presence and development of CAs irrespective of sexual orientation.

Malaria: elimination tale from Yunnan Province of China and new challenges for reintroduction.

Infectious Diseases of Poverty

Eradication of infectious disease is the sanctified public health and sustainable development goal around the world.

Three antimalarial barriers were developed to control imported malarial cases, and an effective surveillance strategy known as the "1-3-7 approach" was developed to eliminate malaria from the Chinese population. From 2011 to 2019, 5254 confirmed malaria cases were reported and treated in Yunnan Province, China. Among them, 4566 cases were imported from other countries, and 688 cases were indigenous from 2011 to 2016. Since 2017, no new local malarial case has been reported in China. Thus, malaria has been completely eliminated in Yunnan Province. However, malaria is detected in overseas travellers on a regular basis, such as visitors from neighbouring Myanmar.

Hence, the strategies should be further strengthened to maintain a robust public health infrastructure for disease surveillance and vector control programs in border areas. Such programs should be supported technically and financially by the government to avert the possibility of a malarial resurgence in Yunnan Province.

Frailty phenotype is associated with antiretroviral exposure among older persons living with HIV.

Current Opinion in Cell Biology

This multicentre, cross-sectional study was carried out in the South of France to assess the association between frailty phenotype and antiretroviral therapy (ART) in older persons living with HIV (PLWHIV). Sociodemographic and HIV data, geriatric assessment, comorbidities, behavioral and age-related variables and the five frailty markers of Fried were recorded. Exposure to any pharmacological class of ART and all regimens were retrieved from medical records.

The 509 PLWHIV analysed (72.7% male) received a mean of 6.01 ART regimens and 12.5 years exposure to ART. The prevalence of at least one frailty marker [frail and prefrail phenotype (FPFP)] was 66.4%. Duration of exposure to protease inhibitors and reverse transcriptase inhibitors, number of ART regimens and comorbidities, dyslipidaemia, cancer, depression, falls, disability and pain were significantly associated with FPFP by univariate analysis. In logistic regression multivariable analysis, independent predictors for FPFP were a large number of ART regimens, presence of cancer and pain. No significant association was found with HIV-related parameters neither with ART class and duration.

A significant association was found between FPFP and a large number of different ART regimens among older PLWHIV. The burden of cancer and pain in these patients shows the importance of comprehensive care.

Cytomegalovirus-associated pseudomembranous colitis in a kidney transplant recipient.

Transplant Infectious Disease

Pseudomembranous colitis is classically associated with Clostridium difficile infection. We report a rare case of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-associated ...

Impact of switching to raltegravir and/or adding losartan in lymphoid tissue fibrosis and inflammation in people living with HIV. A randomized clinical trial.

HIV Medicine

Persistent inflammation and immune activation are associated with lymph node fibrosis and end-organ diseases in treatment-suppressed people living with HIV (PLWH). We investigated the effect of switching to raltegravir and/or adding losartan on lymphoid tissue fibrosis and on the inflammatory/immune-activation mediators in treated HIV patients.

Chronic HIV-infected patients treated with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (2NRTI) and one non-NRTI (NNRTI) or protease inhibitor (PI) during at least 48 weeks were randomized to four groups (n = 48): 2NRTI + efavirenz (EFV), 2NRTI + EFV + losartan, 2NRTI + raltegravir and 2NRTI + raltegravir + losartan for 48 weeks. Tonsillar biopsy and peripheral blood markers of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte activation and senescence, monocyte activation and soluble markers of inflammation were determined at baseline and at week 48 and compared between groups.

No changes in lymphoid tissue architecture were observed. Adding losartan had no impact on lymphocyte subsets. Conversely, patients who switched to raltegravir showed a higher decrease in all activated [CD4+CD38+HLA-DR+, -0.3 vs. 0.48 (P = 0.033); CD8+CD38+ HLA-DR+, -1.6 vs. 1.3 (P = 0.02)] and senescent [CD4+CD28-CD57+, -0.3 vs. 0.26 (P = 0.04); CD8+CD28-CD57+, -6.1 vs. 3.8 (P = 0.002)] T lymphocytes. In addition, the median CD4/CD8 ratio increased by 0.35 in patients in the raltegravir group vs. 0.03 in the other arms (P = 0.002). Differences between groups in monocyte subpopulations or soluble inflammation markers were not observed.

Losartan had no effect on lymphoid fibrosis or immune activation/inflammation. Conversely, switching to a regimen with raltegravir significantly decreased activated and senescent T-lymphocyte subpopulations and increased CD4/CD8 ratio in successfully treated PLWH.

Characteristics of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis detection in China, 2015-2019.

Infectious Diseases of Poverty

The very high burden of rifampicin resistance tuberculosis (RR-TB) and the very low detection of RR-TB cases are a major challenge that China has been facing. This study analyzed the characteristics of RR-TB detection in China after the change of RR-TB detection strategy since 2015, aiming to provide reference and evidence for the development of more precise national drug resistance tuberculosis prevention and control policy.

We extracted data related to rifampicin resistance screening from the national Tuberculosis Information Management System (TBIMS) from 2015 to 2019, and used descriptive research methods to analyze the screening rate of presumptive RR-TB, the number and duration of RR-TB patients detected and drug resistance testing methods in each year. Chi-square test was used to compare the differences in component ratio or rate between years, and Kruskal Wallis test was used to compare the differences in median days for detection of RR-TB patients in each year.

A total of 68,200 RR-TB cases were detected during 2015-2019, of which 48.1% were new cases. The number and detection rate of RR-TB cases increased year by year, from 10 019 and 14.3% in 2015 to 18 623 and 28.7% in 2019, respectively. Of the bacteriologically confirmed TB cases, 81.9% were tested for RR in 2019, a considerable increase from 29.5% in 2015. In 2019, only 41.0% of RR-TB cases had fluoroquinolones (FQs) susceptibility testing performed, and this proportion has been declining year by year since 2016. The proportion of application of rapid molecular tools increased from 24.0% in 2015 to 67.1% in 2019, and the median days to obtain RR results was significantly shortened. In 2019, 76.0% of RR-TB cases were diagnosed as presumptive RR-TB in county-level hospitals.

After China modified the RR-TB detection strategy, the screening rate of RR and the number of RR-TB cases increased significantly. The RR testing methods now predominantly utilize rapid molecular tools. However, comprehensive measures should be implemented to close the gap in the detection of RR-TB cases. It is imperative to take FQs susceptibility testing seriously and effectively strengthen the laboratory capacity of county-level hospitals.

Plasma and Lung Tissue Pharmacokinetics of Ceftaroline Fosamil in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass: An in-vivo Microdialysis Study.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Ceftaroline fosamil, a 5th generation cephalosporin antibiotic with activity against MRSA, is currently approved for the treatment of pneumonia and complicated skin and soft tissue infections. However, pharmacokinetic data on free lung tissue concentrations in critical patient populations are lacking.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of the high-dose regimen of ceftaroline in plasma and lung tissue in cardiac surgery patients during intermittent and continuous administration.

9 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass were included in this study and randomly assigned to intermittent or continuous administration. 1800mg ceftaroline fosamil were administered intravenously as either 600mg over 2h q8h (intermittent group) or 600mg over 2h (loading dose) and 1200mg over 22h (continuous group). Interstitial lung tissue concentrations were measured by in-vivo microdialysis. Relevant pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated for each group.

Plasma exposure during intermittent and continuous administration were comparable to previously published studies and did not differ significantly between both groups. In-vivo microdialysis demonstrated reliable and adequate penetration of ceftaroline into lung tissue during intermittent and continuous administration. The AUCSS 0-8 and AUCtissue/plasma ratio were descriptively higher in the continuous group. Continuous administration of ceftaroline fosamil achieved significantly higher fT4x>MIC than intermittent administration for pathogens with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 1mg/L.

Ceftaroline showed adequate penetration into interstitial lung tissue of critically ill patients undergoing major cardiothoracic surgery, supporting its use for pneumonia caused by susceptible pathogens.

IBS Therapeutic has Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Otilonium bromide is a poorly absorbed oral medication used to control irritable bowel syndrome. It is thought to act as a muscle relaxant in the i...

Sterilizing Effects of Novel Regimens Containing TB47, Clofazimine and Linezolid in a Murine Model of Tuberculosis.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

TB47, a new drug candidate targeting QcrB in the electron transport chain, has shown a unique synergistic activity with clofazimine and formed a hi...