The latest medical research on Infectious Disease

The research magnet gathers the latest research from around the web, based on your specialty area. Below you will find a sample of some of the most recent articles from reputable medical journals about infectious disease gathered by our medical AI research bot.

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Nutritional assessment and counselling of tuberculosis patients at primary care in India: do we measure up?

Int J Tuberc

SETTING:Dakshina Kannada District, coastal South India, under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP).OBJECTIVE:To identify the...

Sustaining Efforts of Controlling Zoonotic Sleeping Sickness in Uganda Using Trypanocidal Treatment and Spray of Cattle with Deltamethrin.

Vector Borne Zoonotic

In 2005, the zoonotic acute sleeping sickness was spreading rapidly from the endemic areas of southeastern Uganda with potential for merger into ar...

Epidemiology of Lyme disease among US Veterans in Long Island, New York.

Ticks and tick-borne diseases

In North America, Lyme disease (LD) is caused predominantly by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferisensu stricto, and is transmitted by blacklegged ...

Virome analysis of tick-borne viruses in Heilongjiang Province, China.

Ticks and tick-borne diseases

Ticks are implicated in the transmission of various human and livestock pathogens worldwide. This study aimed to understand the geographical distri...

Efficacy and tolerability of fosfomycin in prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections among kidney transplant recipients.

Transplant infectious disease : an official journal of the Transplantation Society

The recent randomized controlled trial by Arreola-Guerra et al on the use of fosfomycin trometamol (FOS) in the primary prevention of urinary tract...

Monitoring the microbial contamination of donor cornea during all preservation phases: a prospective study in the Eye Bank of Rome.

Transplant infectious disease : an official journal of the Transplantation Society

In most European eye banks, human donor corneas are microbiologically tested after storage in organ culture conditions, and the tissues that are free of contamination are distributed for transplantation. In this prospective study, 100 donor corneas were tested for microbial contamination after cold storage, corneal culture and corneal deswelling at the Eye Bank of Rome.

Samples of cold storage medium (EUSOL-C), corneal culture medium (TISSUE-C) and deswelling medium (CARRY-C) were tested after three, seven and one days of corneal storage, respectively. The CARRY-C medium, used to transport the cornea to the operation theatre, was retested one day after transplantation. The TISSUE-C and CARRY-C media were also tested after removing antimicrobial and antifungal agents using a dedicated device.

We found 67% of the EUSOL-C samples were contaminated mainly by Staphylococcus spp., 14% of TISSUE-C media were contaminated by bacteria and fungi and 3% of CARRY-C media by Staphylococcus spp. The analysis performed after removing the antimicrobial and antifungal agents showed growth in three additional TISSUE-C samples (S. viridans, S. haemolyticus and E. faecalis) and one CARRY-C (S. cerevisiae and P. acnes).

Tissue contamination was unexpectedly high on arrival to the eye bank, indicating the need to review and update decontamination procedures during tissue recovery, and renew training for the recovery teams. Storing donor corneas in organ culture conditions significantly reduced the microorganism burden. Using devices to remove antimicrobial and antifungal agents from samples before testing can increase the sensitivity of the standard microbiological method, and thus help further reduce the risk of microbial transmission. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

A survey of infectious diseases and vaccination uptake in long-term Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant survivors in Australia.

Transplant infectious disease : an official journal of the Transplantation Society

This cross-sectional survey aimed to establish the prevalence of infectious diseases and vaccination uptake in long-term allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) survivors in New South Wales, in order to reduce long-term post-HSCT morbidity and mortality and enhance long-term care.

HSCT survivors aged over 18 years and transplanted between 2000-2012 in New South Wales (NSW) were eligible to participate. Survivors self-completed the Sydney Post BMT Study survey, FACT-BMT (V4), Chronic Graft versus Host Disease (cGVHD) Activity Assessment Self Report, Lee Chronic GvHD Symptom Scale, DASS21, Post Traumatic Growth Inventory, and the Fear of Recurrence Scale.

Of the 583 HSCT survivors contacted, 441 (78%) completed the survey. Respondents included 250 (57%) males and median age was 54 years (range 19-79 years). The median age at time of transplant was 49 years (Range: 17-71), the median time since HSCT was 5 years (Range: 1-14) and 69% had cGVHD. Collectively, 41.7% of survivors reported a vaccine preventable disease (VPD) with the most common being influenza-like-illness (38.4%), varicella zoster/shingles (27.9%), pap smear abnormalities (9.8%), pneumococcal disease (5.1%) and varicella zoster (chicken pox) (4.6%). Only 31.8% had received the full post-HSCT vaccination schedule, and the majority (69.8%) of these had received the vaccines via their General Practitioner. cGVHD was not found to be a significant factor on multivariate analysis for those who were vaccinated. There was a trend towards lower vaccination rates in patients in a lower income strata.

Vaccinating post-HSCT survivors to prevent infections and their consequences has an established role in post-HSCT care. Improving rates of post-HSCT vaccination should be a major priority for BMT units. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

A Case of Verruconis gallopava Infection in a Heart Transplant Recipient Successfully Treated With Posaconazole.

Transplant infectious disease : an official journal of the Transplantation Society

Verruconis gallopava is an environmental dematiaceous fungus that is recognized increasingly as a cause of human disease, especially for immunocomp...

Atraumatic splenic rupture following IVIg for parvovirus B19 pure red cell aplasia post renal transplant.

Transplant infectious disease : an official journal of the Transplantation Society

Parvovirus B19 (PB19) infection is an uncommon but well reported cause of anemia in solid organ transplant recipients. Persistent cases may be trea...

Estimating national rates of HIV infection among men who have sex with men, persons who inject drugs and heterosexuals in the United States.

AIDS (London, England)

Calculating national rates of HIV diagnosis, incidence, and prevalence can quantify disease burden and is important for planning and evaluating programs. We calculated HIV rates among men who have sex with men (MSM), persons who inject drugs (PWID), and heterosexuals in 2010 and 2015.

We used proportion estimates of the United States population classified as MSM, PWID, and heterosexuals along with census data to calculate the population sizes which were used as the denominators for calculating HIV rates. The numerators (HIV diagnosis, incidence, and prevalence) were based on data submitted to the National HIV Surveillance System through June 2017.

The estimated HIV diagnosis and incidence rates in 2015 were 574.7 and 583.6 per 100,000 MSM; 34.3 and 32.7 per 100,000 PWID; and 4.1 and 3.8 per 100,000 heterosexuals. The estimated HIV prevalence in 2015 was 12,372.9 per 100,000 MSM; 1,937.2 per 100,000 PWID; and 126.7 per 100,000 heterosexuals. The HIV diagnosis rates decreased from 2010 to 2015 in all three transmission categories. Blacks had the highest HIV diagnosis rates at both time points. The HIV incidence rates decreased among white MSM, MSM aged 13-24 years, PWID overall, and male and female heterosexuals; however, it increased among MSM aged 25-34 years.

The estimated HIV diagnosis and HIV infection rates decreased for several transmission categories as well as race/ethnicity and age subgroups. MSM continue to be disproportionately affected. Disparities remain and have widened for some groups. Efforts are needed to strengthen prevention, care, and supportive services for all persons with HIV infection.

Integration of care for HIV and opioid use disorder: a systematic review of interventions in clinical and community-based settings.

AIDS (London, England)

We sought to identify optimal strategies for integrating HIV- and opioid use disorder-(OUD) screening and treatment in diverse settings.

We searched Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO and pre-identified websites. Studies were included if they were published in English on or after 2002 through May 2017, and evaluated interventions that integrated, at an organizational level, screening and/or treatment for HIV and OUD in any care setting in any country.

Twenty-nine articles met criteria for inclusion, including 23 unique studies: six took place in HIV care settings, 12 in opioid treatment settings, and five elsewhere. Eight involved screening strategies, 22 involved treatment strategies, and seven involved strategies that encompassed screening and treatment. Randomized controlled studies demonstrated low to moderate risk of bias and observational studies demonstrated fair to good quality. Studies in HIV care settings (n = 6) identified HIV- and OUD-related clinical benefits with the use of buprenorphine/naloxone for OUD. No studies in HIV care settings focused on screening for OUD. Studies in opioid treatment settings (n = 12) identified improving HIV screening uptake and clinical benefits with antiretroviral therapy when provided on-site. Counseling intensity for OUD medication adherence or HIV-related risk reduction was not associated with clinical benefits.

Screening for HIV can be effectively delivered in opioid treatment settings, yet there is a need to identify optimal OUD screening strategies in HIV care settings. Strategies integrating the provision of medications for HIV and for OUD should be expanded and should not be contingent on resources available for behavioral interventions.

A protocol for record eligibility was developed a priori and was registered in the PROSPERO database of systematic reviews (registration number CRD42017069314).

Reinfection by HCV following effective all-oral DAA therapy in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals.

AIDS (London, England)

We analyzed HCV reinfection among participants in a prospective registry of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients treated with all-oral DAA-based therapy in the region of Madrid.

The study period started on the date SVR was confirmed. The censoring date was December 31, 2017. SVR was defined as negative HCV-RNA 12 weeks after completion of treatment. Reinfection was defined as a positive HCV-RNA test result after achievement of SVR.

Reinfections were detected in 17 of 2,359 HIV/HCV-coinfected patients (0.72%) overall, in 12 of 177 (6.78%) men who have sex with men MSM, and in 5 of 1,459 (0.34%) people who inject drugs (PWID). The incidence of reinfection (95% CI) per 100 person-years was 0.48 (0.30-0.77) overall, 5.93 (3.37-10.44) for MSM, and 0.21 (0.09-0.52) for PWID. Reinfections were detected a median of 14.86 weeks (IQR 13.43-25.71) after SVR. In 10 (58.82%) patients, the reinfection was caused by a different HCV genotype. All 12 MSM with reinfection acknowledged unprotected anal intercourse with several partners, 7 used chemsex, 6 reported fisting, and 4 practiced slamming. A concomitant STI was detected in 5 patients. Four IDU with reinfection reported injecting drugs following SVR.

HCV reinfection is a matter of concern in HIV-positive MSM treated with all-oral DAA therapy in the region of Madrid. Our data suggest that prevention strategies and frequent testing with HCV-RNA should be applied following SVR in MSM who engage in high-risk practices.